SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Parry CM, Hien TT, Dougan G et al. Typhoid fever. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 17701782.
  • 2
    Tulchinsky TH, Burla E, Clayman M et al. Safety of community drinking-water and outbreaks of waterborne enteric disease. Israel, 1976–97. Bull World Health Organ 2000; 78: 14661473.
  • 3
    Engels EA, Lau J. Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2.CD001261
  • 4
    Schwartz E, Shlim DR. Enteric fever among Israeli travelers in Nepal. the need for typhoid vaccination. Isr J Med Sci 1990; 26: 325327.
  • 5
    Schwartz E, Shlim DR, Eaton M et al. The effect of oral and parenteral typhoid vaccination on the rate of infection with Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A among foreigners in Nepal. Arch Intern Med 1990; 150: 349351.
  • 6
    Cobelens FG, Kooij S, Warris-Versteegen A, Visser LG. Typhoid fever in group travelers. opportunity for studying vaccine efficacy. J Travel Med 2000; 7: 1924.
  • 7
    Shlim DR, Schwartz E, Eaton M. Clinical importance of Salmonella paratyphi A infection to enteric fever in Nepal. J Travel Med 1995; 2: 165168.
  • 8
    Rodrigues C, Shenai S, Mehta A. Enteric fever in Mumbai, India. the good news and the bad news. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36:535.
  • 9
    Montes M, DuPont HL. Enteritis, enterocolitis and infectious diarrhea syndromes. In. CohenJ, PowderlyWJ, eds. Cohen & Powderly: infectious diseases. 2nd Ed. Edinburgh : Mosby, 2004:477490.
  • 10
    Kaye KS, Kaye D. Salmonella infections other than typhoid fever. In. GoldmanL, ed. Cecil textbook of medicine. 22nd Ed. Philadelphia : W. B. Saunders Company, 2004:18511852.
  • 11
    Black RE, Levine MM, Ferreccio C et al. Efficacy of one or two doses of Ty21a Salmonella typhi vaccine in enteric-coated capsules in a controlled field trial. Chilean Typhoid Committee. Vaccine 1990; 8: 8184.
  • 12
    Simanjuntak CH, Paleologo FP, Punjabi NH et al. Oral immunisation against typhoid fever in Indonesia with Ty21a vaccine. Lancet 1991; 338: 10551059.
  • 13
    Lin FY, Ho VA, Khiem HB et al. The efficacy of a Salmonella typhi Vi conjugate vaccine in two-to-five-year-old children. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 12631269.
  • 14
    Tacket CO, Pasetti MF, Sztein MB et al. Immune responses to an oral typhoid vaccine strain that is modified to constitutively express Vi capsular polysaccharide. J Infect Dis 2004; 190: 565570.
  • 15
    Mermin JH, Townes JM, Gerber M et al. Typhoid fever in the United States, 1985–1994. changing risks of international travel and increasing antimicrobial resistance. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 633638.
  • 16
    Lester A, Mygind O, Jensen KT et al. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Denmark 1986–1990. Epidemiologic aspects and the extent of bacteriological follow-up of patients. Ugeskr Laeger 1994; 156: 37703775.
  • 17
    Braddick MR, Sharp JC. Enteric fever in Scotland 1975–1990. Pub Health 1993; 107: 193198.
  • 18
    Caumes E, Ehya N, Nguyen J, Bricaire F. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever. a 10-year retrospective study of 41 cases in a Parisian hospital. J Travel Med 2001; 8: 293297.
  • 19
    Hoshino Y, Masuda G, Negishi M et al. Clinical and bacteriological profiles of patients with typhoid fever treated during 1975–1998 in the Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital. Microbiol Immunol 2000; 44: 577583.
  • 20
    Sinha A, Sazawal S, Kumar R et al. Typhoid fever in children aged less than 5 years. Lancet 1999; 354: 734737.
  • 21
    World Health Organization. World Health Organization. Background document. the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of typhoid fever. Geneva: WHO, 2003
  • 22
    Bacaner N, Stauffer B, Boulware DR et al. Travel medicine considerations for North American immigrants visiting friends and relatives. JAMA 2004; 291: 28562864.
  • 23
    Meltzer E, Yossepowitch O, Sadik C et al. Epidemiology and clinical aspects of enteric fever in Israel. Am J Trop Med Hyg. (In press).
  • 24
    Crump JA, Youssef FG, Luby SP et al. Estimating the incidence of typhoid fever and other febrile illnesses in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis 2003; 9: 539544.
  • 25
    Ministry of Public Health Thailand. Ministry of Public Health Thailand. Annual Epidemiological Surveillance Report. 2004; [3 screens]. Available at. http://epid.moph.go.th/Annual47/annual47_index_2.html (accessed Sept. 19, 2005)
  • 26
    Acharya IL, Lowe CU, Thapa R et al. Prevention of typhoid fever in Nepal with the Vi capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi. A preliminary report. N Engl J Med 1987; 317: 11011104.