A long-term study of 277 cases of equine sinonasal disease. Part 1: Details of horses, historical, clinical and ancillary diagnostic findings



  • P. M. DIXON


The clinical and ancillary diagnostic findings in equine sinnasal disease were studied. The diagnoses in 277 referred (1984–1996) cases of equine sinonasal disease included the following (% all cases): 67 cases (24.2%) primary sinusitis, 61 (22.0%) dental sinusitis, 37 (13.4%) sinus cysts, 22 (7.9%) sinonasal neoplasia, 21 (7.6%) progressive ethmoid haematoma, 17 (6.1%) sinonasal trauma, 13 (4.7%) sinonasal mycosis, 11 (4.0%) rostral maxillary cheek tooth infection, 7 (2.5%) sinonasal polyps, 7 (2.5%) cases of nasal epidermal inclusion cysts and 14 (5.1%) miscellaneous sinonasal disorders. Many disorders showed similar clinical signs including nasal discharge (present in 88% of all cases) and facial swelling (46%). Most disorders were chronic, with a median duration of signs of 12 weeks (range 3 days-6 years) priorto referral. Sinus cysts and sinonasal neoplasia were significantly (P<0.05) more frequently associated with gross distortion of the nasal passages and facial bones than the other sinonasal disorders. Endoscopic changes were detected per nasum in 91% of cases, but contributed to the exact diagnosis in only 20%. Radiography revealed abnormalities in 81% of cases but was diagnostically useful in only 36%. Sinoscopy was diagnostically useful in 70% of the 61 cases where used.