Reasons for performing study: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a mainstay of treatment for acid-related ulceration in man and horses. Currently, only an oral preparation of omeprazole is approved for use in horses in the USA. Intravenous administration of a PPI would provide a useful therapeutic alternative for those foals in which oral medication is not feasible.
Objective: To investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pantoprazole following i.v. or intragastric administration in healthy neonatal foals.
Methods: Seven healthy foals age 6–12 days at the start of the study were evaluated. Treatments included no drug administration, i.v. pantoprazole (1.5 mg/kg bwt) and intragastric pantoprazole (1.5 mg/kg bwt). Intragastric pH was recorded for 24 h after drug administration for pharmacodynamic evaluation. Plasma pantoprazole concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results: Plasma concentrations of pantoprazole were detectable at the 5 min sampling point following i.v. or intragastric administration. Bioavailability of intragastric-administered pantoprazole was 41%. Baseline mean hourly pH was 1.5–6.1. There was a statistically significant increase in mean hourly pH relative to untreated foals 2–24 h after i.v. or intragastric pantoprazole administration.
Conclusions: Based on these data, i.v. or intragastric administration of pantoprazole results in a significant, prolonged increase in intragastric pH.
Potential relevance: The i.v. formulation of pantoprazole may provide a clinically useful alternative means of acid suppression in foals unable to tolerate enteral administration of a PPI, such as those with pyloric outflow obstruction.