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Keywords:

  • horse;
  • racehorse;
  • respiratory;
  • endoscopy;
  • inflammatory;
  • tracheal

Summary

Reasons for performing study: There has been much research directed at potential causative agents and the epidemiology of lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD), but few reports of the clinical progression and outcome.

Objectives: To define clinical features of LRTD in racehorses, including association with age and average duration of disease, through the analysis of endoscopic data.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of records from a single training yard of endoscopic examinations undertaken over a 2-year period was performed. Horses were subjected to regular endoscopic examination for a variety of reasons, and all horses placed on antibiotic therapy for lower respiratory tract disease were rescoped following treatment. Data analysed included a 0–8 tracheal mucus score based on visible endoscopic mucus and gross tracheal lavage turbidity, as well as age and treatment duration and type.

Results: A total of 522 endoscopic examinations undertaken on 123 horses and tracking 169 episodes of lower respiratory tract disease were recorded. Mean duration of disease episode was 15.5 days (median = 11 days, range = 4–61 days). Horses age 2 years were significantly more likely than those age ≥3 years to have at least one episode of respiratory disease (P<0.001). There was a direct association between initial tracheal mucus score and rescope score after treatment.

Conclusions: Lower respiratory tract disease was more common in 2-year-olds than in older horses. Affected horses had endoscopic evidence of increased tracheal mucus accumulation for an average of 15.5 days per episode, a considerably shorter period than that suggested by previous studies.

Potential relevance: Endoscopic examinations permit longitudinal tracking of lower respiratory tract disease in Thoroughbred racehorses. A prolonged duration of disease, sometimes extending for months, can be expected in a small proportion of cases, some of which appear to be refractory to treatment. There is a clear need for evidence-based analysis of treatment regimes to assist clinicians in decision making when managing disease in both individual and group situations.