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Keywords:

  • horse;
  • embryonic orientation;
  • umbilical cord;
  • placenta;
  • intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)

Summary

Abnormal cord attachment can be a manifestation of an inappropriate fixation position of the conceptus in the uterus, or it may result from disorientation of the conceptus post fixation. The potential for this resulting in fetal and neonatal compromise is reviewed in the light of previous reports and to which 3 cases within the authors' experience are added.