• Open Access

Scientific Opinion on African Swine Fever


  • EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW)

  • Panel members: Philippe Vannier (Chair), Joerg Hartung (Vice-Chair), James Michael Sharp (Vice-Chair), Anette Bøtner, Donald Maurice Broom, Marcus G. Doherr, Mariano Domingo, Linda Keeling, Frank Koenen, Simon More, David Morton, Pascal Oltenacu, Albert Osterhaus, Fulvio Salati, Mo Salman, Moez Sanaa, Jan Arend Stegeman, Endre Szücs, Hans-Hermann Thulke, Anthony John Francis Webster, Martin Wierup
  • Correspondence: ahaw@efsa.europa.eu
  • Acknowledgement: The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on African Swine Fever for the preparatory work of this EFSA scientific output: Anette Bøtner, Agustin Estrada Peña, Alessandro Mannelli, Barbara Wieland, Carsten Potzsch, Cristiana Patta, Emanuel Albina, Ferdinando Boinas, Frank Koenen (chair), James Michael Sharp, Linda Dixon, Mo Salman, Sánchez-Vizcaino, Sandra Blome, Vittorio Guberti and EFSA's staff members Sofie Dhollander, Milen Georgiev, Jordi Tarres and Tilemachos Goumperis for the support provided to this EFSA scientific output.
  • Adoption date: 11 March 2010
  • Published date: 22 March 2010
  • Question number: EFSA-Q-2009-00506
  • On request from: European Commission


The risk that African Swine Fever virus (ASFV) remains endemic in the Trans Caucasian Countries (TCC) and the Russian Federation (RF) is moderate, while the risk of its spread in these regions is high. The resulting risk of introduction from these regions into the EU is moderate most likely through food waste. The risk of ASFV remaining endemic in wild boar and the consequent introduction into the EU was considered low in the TCC and moderate in the RF, mainly due to the higher population density in the RF and the connected wild boar populations to the EU from the RF. Within the EU, mainly domestic pigs in the free range (FR) and the limited biosecurity sector (LB) are likely to be exposed to ASFV via swill feeding, with low risk. Once infected, the risk of spread from the LB and FR sectors prior detection is high, mainly due to movement of pigs, people and vehicles and moderate from the High Biosecurity (HB) sector. The risk of endemicity in domestic pigs is considered negligible in HB and low in LB since the implementation of control measures are effective. The risk of endemicity in the FR sector is moderate due to wild boar contact, non-compliance with animal movement ban and difficult access to all individual pigs. The risk of ASFV becoming endemic in the wild boar population in the EU is moderate, in particular in areas with connected wild boar populations. Because of their long life, ticks of the O. erraticus complex can be important in maintaining local foci of ASFV, where pigs are kept under traditional systems. Ticks do not, play an active role in the geographical spread of the virus. Wild boar have never been found infested because they do not rest inside burrows potentially infested by ticks.