• Open Access

Scientific Opinion on the Role of Tick Vectors in the Epidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and African Swine Fever in Eurasia


  • EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare

  • Panel members: Anette Bøtner, Donald M. Broom, Marcus G. Doherr, Mariano Domingo, Joerg Hartung, Linda Keeling, Frank Koenen, Simon More, David Morton, Pascal Oltenacu, Albert Osterhaus, Fulvio Salati, Mo Salman, Moez Sanaa, James Michael Sharp, Jan Arend Stegeman, Endre Szücs, Hans-Hermann Thulke, Philippe Vannier, Anthony John Webster, Martin Wierup
  • Correspondence: ahaw@efsa.europa.eu
  • Acknowledgement: The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on tick vectors: Mo Salman (Chair), Agustín Estrada-Peña, Robert Farkas, Thomas Jaenson, Frank Koenen, Maxime Madder, Ilaria Pascucci for the preparatory work of this scientific opinion and EFSA scientific officers: Jordi Tarrés-Call, Sofie Dhollander, and Milen Georgiev for the support provided to this scientific opinion
  • Adoption date: 22 July 2010
  • Published date: 10 August 2010
  • Correction date: 18 February 2013
  • Correction/Erratum: The correction made in this new version of the Scientific Output relates to changes in Figure 6, page 39, where some green dots representing coordinates of historical data that were assumed to have been published before 2000, should instead be in red as they were actually published between 2000-2010.
  • Question number: EFSA-Q-2009-00594
  • On request from: EFSA


The report provides an update on the role of the tick vectors in the epidemiology of African swine fever (ASF) and Crimean and Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Eurasia, specifically to review of the geographical distribution of the relevant ticks with presentation of maps of their occurrence in Europe and Mediterranean basin; a description of the factors that define the relevant tick population dynamics and identify possible high risk areas in the EU; an update on the role of tick vectors associated with CCHF and ASF in Eurasia; and reviews available methods for the control of the relevant tick vectors. Data were collected through systematic literature review in a database from which maps of geographic distribution of ticks, CCHF virus and ASF virus were issued. The main vectors for CCHF are Hyalomma spp, Increase in the number of fragmented areas and the degradation of agricultural lands to bush lands are the two main factors in the creation of new foci of CCHF in endemic areas. Movement of livestock and wildlife species, which may carry infected ticks, contributes to the spread of the infection. The Middle East and Balkan countries are the most likely sources of introduction of CCHFV into other European countries. All the Ornithodoros species investigated so far can become infective with ASF virus and are perhaps biological vectors. These ticks are important in maintaining the local foci of the ASFV, but do not play an active role in the geographical spread of the virus. Wild boars have never been found infested by Ornithodoros spp. because wild boars normally do not rest inside protected burrows, but above the ground. There is no single ideal solution to the control of ticks relevant for CCHF or ASF. The integrated control approach is probably the most effective.