• Open Access

Scientific Opinion on Geographic Distribution of Tick-borne Infections and their Vectors in Europe and the other Regions of the Mediterranean Basin


  • EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW)

  • Panel members: Anette Bøtner, Donald M. Broom, Marcus G. Doherr, Mariano Domingo, Joerg Hartung, Linda Keeling, Frank Koenen, Simon More, David Morton, Pascal Oltenacu, Albert Osterhaus, Fulvio Salati, Mo Salman, Moez Sanaa, James Michael Sharp, Jan Arend Stegeman, Endre Szücs, Hans-Hermann Thulke, Philippe Vannier, Anthony John Webster, Martin Wierup
  • Correspondence: ahaw@efsa.europa.eu
  • Acknowledgement: The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on tick vectors: Agustín Estrada-Peña, Robert Farkas, Thomas Jaenson, Frank Koenen, Maxime Madder, Ilaria Pascucci, Mo Salman for the preparatory work of this scientific opinion and EFSA staff: Jordi Tarrés-Call, Sofie Dhollander, and Milen Georgiev for the support provided to this scientific opinion.
  • Adoption date: 8 September 2010
  • Published date: 29 September 2010
  • Correction date: 18 February 2013
  • Correction/Erratum: The correction made in this new version of the Scientific Output relates to changes in the legend of figure in page 267, where it is written “Haemaphysalis inermis Birula, 1895” should be “Haemaphysalis punctata” In Figure 11, page 68, and in Figure 15, page 76, some green dots representing coordinates of historical data that were assumed to have been published before 2000, should instead be in red as they were actually published between 2000–2010
  • Question number: EFSA-Q-2009-00595
  • On request from: EFSA


This report is the second of a series of two technical assessments of the role of ticks in transmission of animal diseases and zoonoses in Eurasia. A previous published scientific opinion (EFSA Journal 2010; (8)8, 1703) focused on two diseases- Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and African swine fever in Eurasia. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the geographic distribution of tick species which have proven involvement in the transmission of pathogens causing animal diseases and zoonoses in Eurasia. The report provides maps of the region that display the occurrences of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Systematic literature review of available publications for the last 10 years and other available literature from the experts were used in the retrieval of the geographical reported cases for the presence of ticks and tick borne pathogens. The report includes a description of the factors that influence the dynamics of the relevant tick species and identify possible high-risk areas in the EU for introduction, considering the biological and ecological characteristics of the ticks and their ability to adapt to new areas. Findings from this review have provided evidence of the extent of ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) in geographical ranges and the existing risk areas that should be considered as baseline information to assess potential risk of these diseases. The report indicates the validity of using available literature to support the presence of ticks and TBDs without further predication using weather and other environmental factors associated with the ticks“ survival. The report concluded that animal and human movement play more impact on the spread of the ticks and TBDs. Climate changes and flight pattern of migratory birds can influence the presence and spread of the ticks and TBDs, but have not been determined to be responsible for the widespread distribution of ticks.