• Open Access

The European Union Summary Report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2010


  • European Food Safety Authority,

  • European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

  • Correspondence: zoonoses@efsa.europa.eu
  • Acknowledgement: EFSA and ECDC wish to thank the members of the Task Force on Zoonoses Data Collection and the Food and Waterborne Disease Network who provided the data and reviewed the report. In addition, the contribution of the following for the support they provided to this scientific output is gratefully acknowledged: EFSA staff members Pierre-Alexandre Belœil, Camilla Smeraldi, Pia Mäkelä, Anca Stoicescu, Elena Mazzolini, Francesca Riolo, Kenneth Mulligan and Fabrizio Abbinante; ECDC staff members Angela Lahuerta-Marin, Taina Niskanen, Therese Westrell and Johanna Takkinen; EFSA contractors from the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency of the UK Christopher Teale, Lucy Brunton, Daisy Duncan, Peter Sewell, Ian Hillis, Ruth Blackwell, Sarah Easthope, Jemma Brown and Tanya Cheney; and peer reviewer Pascal Sanders.
  • Approval date: 21 February 2012
  • Published date: 14 March 2012
  • Question number: EFSA-Q-2011-00314
  • On request from: EFSA


The antimicrobial resistance data on zoonotic and indicator bacteria in 2010, submitted by 26 European Union Member States, were jointly analysed by the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Data covered resistance in zoonotic Salmonella and Campylobacter from humans, food and animals, and in indicator Escherichia coli and enterococci from animals and food. Some data on meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animals and food were also included. In isolates from humans, resistance was mainly interpreted using clinical breakpoints, whereas in animal and food isolates, microbiological resistance was defined using epidemiological cut-off values. No major changes in resistance in monitored bacteria were observed compared with previous years. Resistance was commonly found in isolates from humans, animals and food, although disparities in resistance were frequently observed between Member States. High resistance levels were recorded to ampicillin, tetracyclines and sulfonamides in Salmonella isolates from humans, whereas resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones remained low. In Salmonella and indicator E. coli isolates from fowl, pigs, cattle and meat thereof, resistance to tetracyclines, ampicillin and sulfonamides was also commonly detected, whereas resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was low. Moderate to high levels of ciprofloxacin (a fluoroquinolone) resistance were observed in Salmonella isolates from turkeys, fowl and broiler meat. In Campylobacter isolates from human cases, resistance to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracyclines was high, while resistance to erythromycin was recorded at low to moderate levels. High resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracyclines was also observed in Campylobacter isolates from fowl, broiler meat, pigs and cattle, whereas much lower levels were observed for erythromycin and gentamicin. Among the indicator enterococci isolates from animals and food, resistance to tetracyclines and erythromycin was commonly detected. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected in some animal species and food of animal origin.