• Open Access

Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in berries)


  • EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ)

  • Panel members: Olivier Andreoletti, Dorte Lau Baggesen, Declan Bolton, Patrick Butaye, Paul Cook, Robert Davies, Pablo S. Fernandez Escamez, John Griffin, Tine Hald, Arie Havelaar, Kostas Koutsoumanis, Roland Lindqvist, James McLauchlin, Truls Nesbakken, Miguel Prieto Maradona, Antonia Ricci, Giuseppe Ru, Moez Sanaa, Marion Simmons, John Sofos and John Threlfall.
  • Correspondence: biohaz@efsa.europa.eu
  • Acknowledgement: The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin Part 2: Ana Allende, Nigel Cook, Paul Cook, James McLauchlin, Christophe Nguyen-The, Birgit Nørrung and Mieke Uyttendaele for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion and EFSA staff: Maria Teresa da Silva Felicio and Ernesto Liebana Criado for the support provided to this scientific opinion.
  • Adoption date: 22 May 2014
  • Published date: 18 June 2014
  • Question number: EFSA-Q-2013-00179
  • On request from: European Commission


Berries are a perishable food which can be consumed as fresh or minimally-processed as well as a frozen ingredient added to many foods. Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries are the most commonly consumed in the EU. Risk factors for berry contamination by Salmonella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of the prevalence of these pathogens in berries were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to prevention of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of risk factors that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in berry production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), should be primary objectives of berry producers. There is currently insufficient evidence to justify the establishment of microbiological criteria for Salmonella for fresh or frozen berries. Outbreaks associated with Norovirus in frozen raspberries and strawberries are an emerging public health risk, although it is not known if in these outbreaks contamination occurred at minimal processing or during primary production. It is currently not possible to assess the suitability of an EU-wide Norovirus Hygiene Criterion at primary production for raspberries and strawberries. Microbiological criteria for Norovirus in berries are useful for validation and verification of food safety management systems, including HACCP-based processes and procedures, and can be used to communicate to food business operators and other stakeholders what is acceptable or unacceptable, however there is insufficient data to provide a risk base for establishing a Process Hygiene and Food Safety Criteria for Norovirus in berries. Collection of appropriate data and subsequent risk-based development of microbiological criteria to support improved control of Norovirus in frozen raspberries and strawberries should be considered as a priority.