• Open Access

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated (chemical group 30, miscellaneous substances) when used as a flavouring for all animal species


  • EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

  • Panel members: Gabriele Aquilina, Vasileios Bampidis, Maria De Lourdes Bastos, Lucio Guido Costa, Gerhard Flachowsky, Mikolaj Antoni Gralak, Christer Hogstrand, Lubomir Leng, Secundino López-Puente, Giovanna Martelli, Baltasar Mayo, Fernando Ramos, Derek Renshaw, Guido Rychen, Maria Saarela, Kristen Sejrsen, Patrick Van Beelen, Robert John Wallace and Johannes Westendorf.
  • Correspondence: FEEDAP@efsa.europa.eu
  • Acknowledgement: The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on Feed Flavourings, including Paul Brantom, Andrew Chesson and Anne-Katrine Lundebye, for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion.
  • Adoption date: 11 December 2014
  • Published date: 13 January 2015
  • Question number: EFSA-Q-2010-01179
  • On request from: European Commission


Glycyrrhizic acid is extracted from the dried and ground rhizome and root portions of the perennial leguminous plant Glycyrrhiza glabra L., native to southern Europe and Central Asia, or other species of the genus Glycyrrhiza. It is currently listed in the register of flavouring substances, allowing its use in food without restriction. Glycyrrhyzic acid ammoniated is safe at the concentration of 1 mg/kg complete feed for all species, except chickens for fattening and laying hens. For these two categories, a safe concentration of 0.3 mg/kg complete feed applies. The Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) cannot conclude on the safety of the additive used in water for drinking. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated in animal nutrition would not measurably increase consumer exposure. In the absence of data on user safety, the FEEDAP Panel considers it prudent to treat glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated as an irritant to skin, eyes and respiratory tract and as a skin sensitiser. The use of glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated in animal feeds would not pose a risk to the environment. As glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated is used in food as a flavouring, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.