• Open Access

Risk profile related to production and consumption of insects as food and feed


  • EFSA Scientific Committee

  • Scientific Committee members: Anthony Hardy, Diane Benford, Hubert PJM Noteborn, Thorhallur Ingi Halldorsson, Josef Schlatter, Roland Alfred Solecki, Michael Jeger, Helle Katrine Knutsen, Simon More, Alicja Mortensen, Hanspeter Naegeli, Colin Ockleford, Antonia Ricci, Guido Rychen, Vittorio Silano, Dominique Turck.
  • Correspondence: scer@efsa.europa.eu
  • Acknowledgement: The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on Safety risks arising from the production and consumption of insects as food and feed: Dorte Lau Baggesen, Michael Bonsall, Adrian Charlton, Gerhard Flachowsky, Anne-Katrine Lundebye, Monika Neuhäuser-Berthold, Birgit Noerrung, Antonia Ricci, Nanna Roos, Ine van der Fels-Klerx, Henk van Loveren and Just M. Vlak for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion, and the hearing experts: Tarique Arsiwalla, Geert Bruggeman, Margot Calis, David Drew, Richou Han, Yupa Hanboonsong, Antoine Hubert, Jonathon Koppert and Paul Vantomme, and EFSA staff members: Tilemachos Goumperis and Pietro Stella for the support provided to this scientific opinion.
  • Adoption date: 5 October 2015
  • Published date: 8 October 2015
  • Question number: EFSA-Q-2014-00578
  • On request from: European Commission


The present opinion has the format of a risk profile and presents potential biological and chemical hazards as well as allergenicity and environmental hazards associated with farmed insects used as food and feed taking into account of the entire chain, from farming to the final product. The opinion also addresses the occurrence of these hazards in non-processed insects, grown on different substrate categories, in comparison to the occurrence of these hazards in other non-processed sources of protein of animal origin. When currently allowed feed materials are used as substrate to feed insects, the possible occurrence of microbiological hazards is expected to be comparable to their occurrence in other non-processed sources of protein of animal origin. The possible occurrence of prions in non-processed insects will depend on whether the substrate includes protein of human or ruminant origin. Data on transfer of chemical contaminants from different substrates to the insects are very limited. Substrates like kitchen waste, human and animal manure are also considered and hazards from insects fed on these substrates need to be specifically assessed. It is concluded that for both biological and chemical hazards, the specific production methods, the substrate used, the stage of harvest, the insect species and developmental stage, as well as the methods for further processing will all have an impact on the occurrence and levels of biological and chemical contaminants in food and feed products derived from insects. Hazards related to the environment are expected to be comparable to other animal production systems. The opinion also identifies the uncertainties (lack of knowledge) related to possible hazards when insects are used as food and feed and notes that there are no systematically collected data on animal and human consumption of insects. Studies on the occurrence of microbial pathogens of vertebrates as well as published data on hazardous chemicals in reared insects are scarce. Further data generation on these issues are highly recommended.