• 1
    Cnattingius S. The epidemiology of smoking during pregnancy: smoking prevalence, maternal characteristics, and pregnancy outcomes. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6:S12540.
  • 2
    US Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking: a report of the Surgeon General. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2004.
  • 3
    US Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the Surgeon General. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2006.
  • 4
    Shafey O, Eriksen M, Ross H, Mackay J. The tobacco atlas, 3rd edn. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2009.
  • 5
    Kaufman NJ, Nichter M. The marketing of tobacco to women: global perspectives. In: SametJM, YoonSY (eds). Women and the tobacco epidemic, challenges for the 21st century. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2001. pp. 998.
  • 6
    Ho MG, Shi Y, Ma S, Novotny TE. Perceptions of tobacco advertising and marketing that might lead to smoking initiation among Chinese high school girls. Tob Control. 2007;16:35960.
  • 7
    Yach D, Bettcher D. Globalization of tobacco industry influence and new global responses. Tob Control. 2000;9:20616.
  • 8
    Holtrop JS, Meghea C, Raffo JE, Biery L, Chartkoff SB, Roman LA. Smoking among pregnant women with Medicaid insurance: are mental health factors related? Matern Child Health J. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-009-0530-x (published online October 17, 2009).
  • 9
    Tong VT, Jones JR, Dietz PM, D'Angelo D, Bombard JM. Trends in smoking before, during, and after pregnancy—pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS), United States, 31 sites, 2000–2005. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2009;58:129.
  • 10
    Moussa K, Ostergren PO, Grahn M, Kunst AE, Eek F, Essen B. Socioeconomic differences in smoking trends among pregnant women at first antenatal visit in Sweden 1982-2001: increasing importance of educational level for the total burden of smoking. Tob Control. 2009;18:927.
  • 11
    Thompson KA, Parahoo KP, McCurry N, O'Doherty E, Doherty AM. Women's perceptions of support from partners, family members and close friends for smoking cessation during pregnancy – combining quantitative and qualitative findings. Health Educ Res. 2004;19:2939.
  • 12
    Gray R, Bonellie SR, Chalmers J, Greer I, Jarvis S, Kurinczuk JJ, et al Contribution of smoking during pregnancy to inequalities in stillbirth and infant death in Scotland 1994–2003: retrospective population based study using hospital maternity records. BMJ. 2009;339:b3754. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.b3754.
  • 13
    Mackenbach JP, Huisman M, Andersen O, Bopp M, Borgan JK, Borrell C, et al Inequalities in lung cancer mortality by the educational level in 10 European populations. Eur J Cancer. 2004;40:12635.
  • 14
    Lumley J, Chamberlain C, Dowswell T, Oliver S, Oakley L, Watson L. Interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009(3):CD001055.
  • 15
    Colman GJ, Joyce T. Trends in smoking before, during and after pregnancy in ten states. Am J Prev Med 2003;24:2935.
  • 16
    Mullen PD. How can more smoking suspension during pregnancy become lifelong abstinence? Lessons learned about predictors, interventions, and gaps in our accumulated knowledge. Nicotine Tob Res 2004;6:S21738.
  • 17
    Stotts AL, DiClemente CC, Carbonari JP, Mullen PD. Postpartum return to smoking: staging a “suspended” behavior. Health Psychol 2000;19:32432.
  • 18
    Greaves L, Cormier R, Devries K, Bottorff J, Johnson J, Kirkland S, et al Expecting to quit. A best practices review of smoking cessation interventions for pregnant and postpartum girls and women. Vancouver: British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women's Health, 2003.
  • 19
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Women and smoking: a report of the Surgeon General. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, Rockville, MD, 2001.
  • 20
    Greaves L. Smoke screen. Women's smoking and social control. Halifax, Canada: Fernwood Publishing, 1996.
  • 21
    Graham H, Francis B, Inskip HM, Harman J, and SWS Study Team. Socioeconomic lifecourse influence on women's smoking status in early adulthood. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2006;60:22833.
  • 22
    Ho MG, Ma S, Chai W, Xia W, Yang G, Novotny TE. Smoking among rural and urban young women in China. Tob Control. 2009. DOI: 10.1136/tc.2009.030981.
  • 23
    WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008: the MPOWER package. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2008.
  • 24
    Steyn K, de Wet T, Saloojee Y, Nei H, Yach D. The influence of maternal cigarette smoking, snuff use and passive smoking on pregnancy outcomes: the Birth To Ten Study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2006;20:909.
  • 25
    Saloojee Y. Tobacco in Africa: more than a health threat. In: BoyleP, GrayN, HenningfieldJ, SeffrinJ, ZatonskiW (eds). Tobacco: science, policy and public health. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2004. pp. 26786.
  • 26
    Chaaya M, Jabbour S, El-Roueiheb Z, Chemaitelly H. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of argileh (water pipe or hubble-bubble) and cigarette smoking among pregnant women in Lebanon. Addict Behav 2004;29:182131.
  • 27
    Maziak W, Ward KD, Soweid RA, Eissenberg T. Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe: a re-emerging strain in a global epidemic. Tob Control. 2004;13:32733.
  • 28
    World Health Organization. South-eastern Europe Health Network. Reversing the tobacco epidemic, saving lives in South-eastern Europe. World Health Organization, 2008.
  • 29
    Zatonski W. Tobacco smoking in central European countries: Poland. In: BoyleP, GrayN, HenningfieldJ, SeffrinJ, ZatonskiW (eds). Tobacco: science, policy and public health. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2004. pp. 23552.
  • 30
    Gilmore A, Pomerleau J, McKee M, Rose R, Haerpfer CW, Rotman D, et al Prevalence of smoking in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union: results from the living conditions, lifestyles and health study. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:217787.
  • 31
    Perlman F, Bobak M, Gilmore A, McKee M. Trends in the prevalence of smoking in Russia during the transition to a market economy. Tob Control. 2007;16:299305.
  • 32
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Smoking and health in the Americas. A report of the Surgeon General, in collaboration with the Pan American Health Organization. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 1992.
  • 33
    Galduroz JCF, Noto AR, Nappo SA, Carlini EA. Household survey on drug abuse in Brazil: Study involving the 107 major cities of the country – 2001. Addict Behav. 2005;30:54556.
  • 34
    Bloch MH, Althabe F, Onyamboko M, Kaseba-Sata C, Castilla EE, Freire S, et al Tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy: an investigative survey of women in 9 developing nations. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:183340.
  • 35
    Government of Chile (Conace, Drug Control Agency). Prevalencia de tabaquismo durante el embarazo en mujeres chilenas de bajo nivel socioeconómico, 2007.
  • 36
    Gu D, Wu X, Reynolds K, Duan X, Xin X, Reynolds RF, et al Cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in China: the international collaborative study of cardiovascular disease in Asia. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:19726.
  • 37
    Rani M, Bonu S, Jha P, Nguyen SN, Jamjoum L. Tobacco use in India: prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross sectional household survey. Tob Control. 2003;12:e4. Available online at:
  • 38
    ReddyKS, GuptaPC (eds). Report on tobacco control in India. New Delhi, India: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, 2004.
  • 39
    Subramanian SV, Nandy S, Kelly M, Gordon D. Smith GD. Patterns and distribution of tobacco consumption in India: cross sectional multilevel evidence from the 1998–9 national family health survey. BMJ. 2004;328:8016.
  • 40
    Nichter M, Padmawathi S, Ng N, Nichter M. Developing community-based household bans on tobacco use. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009; submitted.
  • 41
    Nichter M, Padmawathi S, Danardono M, Ng N, Prabandari Y, Nichter M. Reading culture from tobacco advertisements in Indonesia. Tob Control. 2009;18:98107.
  • 42
    Warren CW, Jones NR, Eriksen MP, Asma A, for the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) collaborative group. Patterns of global tobacco use in young people and implications for future chronic disease burden in adults. Lancet. 2006;367:74953.
  • 43
    Nichter M, Nichter M, Padmawati S, Thresia CU, and Project Quit Tobacco International Group. Anthropological contributions to the development of culturally appropriate tobacco cessation programs: a global health priority. In: HahnR, InhornM (eds). Anthropology and public health: bridging differences in culture & society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • 44
    Nichter M, Nichter M. The ethnophysiology and folk dietetics of pregnancy: a case study from South India. In: NichterM, NichterM (eds). Anthropology and international health: South Asian case studies. New York, Routledge Press, 2001.
  • 45
    Bachir R, Chaaya M. Maternal smoking: Determinants and associated mortality in two areas in Lebanon. J MaternChild Health. 2008;12:298307.
  • 46
    Graham H. Gender and class as dimensions of smoking behavior in Britain: Insights from a survey of mothers. Soc Sci Med. 1994;38:6918.
  • 47
    Nichter M, Nichter M, Muramoto M, Adrian S, Goldade K, Tesler L, et al Smoking among low-income pregnant women: an ethnographic analysis. Health Educ Behav. 2007;34:74864.
  • 48
    Park ER, Chang Y, Quinn V, Regan S, Cohen L, Viguera A, et al The association of depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms and postpartum relapse to smoking: a longitudinal study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11:70714.
  • 49
    Pomerleau CS, Brouwer RJN, Jones LT. Weight concerns in women smokers during pregnancy and postpartum. Addict Behav. 2000;25:75967.
  • 50
    Hopkinson JM, Schanler RJ, Fraley K, Garza C. Milk production by mothers of premature infants: influence of cigarette smoking. Pediatrics. 1992;90:9348.
  • 51
    Islam SMS, Johnson CA. Western media's influence on Egyptian adolescents' smoking behavior: the mediating role of positive beliefs about smoking. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;1:5764.
  • 52
    Morrow M, Ngoc DH, Hoang TT, Trinh TH. Smoking and young women in Vietnam: the influence of normative gender roles. Soc Sci Med. 2002;55:68190.
  • 53
    Waldron I, Bratelli G, Carriker L, Sung W-C, Vogeli C, Waldman E. Gender differences in tobacco use in Africa, Asia, the Pacific and Latin America. Soc Sci Med. 1988;27:126975.
  • 54
    Morrow M, Barraclough S. Tobacco control and gender in south-east Asia. Part II: Singapore and Vietnam. Health Promot Int. 2003;18:37380.
  • 55
    Barraclough S. Women and tobacco in Indonesia. Tob Control. 1999;8:32732.
  • 56
    Greaves L, Tungohan E. Engendering tobacco control: using an international public health treaty to reduce smoking and empower women. Tob Control. 2007;16:14850.
  • 57
    Brandt AM. Recruiting women smokers: the engineering of consent. J Am Med Women's Assoc. 1996;51:636.
  • 58
    Amos A, Haglund M. From social tobacco to “torch of freedom”: the marketing of cigarettes to women. Tob Control. 2000;9:38.
  • 59
    Mackay A, Amos A. Women and tobacco. Respirology. 2003;8:12330.
  • 60
    Knight J, Chapman S. “Asian yuppies…are always looking for something new and different”: creating a tobacco culture among young Asians. Tob Control. 2004;13:ii229.
  • 61
    Bansal R, John S, Ling PM. Cigarette advertising in Mumbai, India: targeting different socioeconomic groups, women, and youth. Tob Control. 2005;14:2016.
  • 62
    Seimon T, Mehl G. Strategic marketing of cigarettes to young people in Sri Lanka: “Go ahead- I want to see you smoke it now”. Tob Control. 1998;7:42933.
  • 63
    Finch K, Ma SJ, Qin DX, Xin G, Xia W, Novotny TE. Smoking knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among rural-to-urban migrant women in Beijing, China. Asia-Pacific J Public Health. 2009; epub ahead of print PMID: 19443881.
  • 64
    National Cancer Institute. The role of the media in promoting and reducing tobacco use. Tobacco Control Monograph No. 19. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 2008.
  • 65
    Thrasher JF, Jackson C, Arillo-Santillan E, Sargent JD. Exposure to smoking imagery in popular films and adolescent smoking in Mexico. Am J Prev Med. 2008;35:95102.
  • 66
    Nichter M, Nichter M, Van Sickle D. Popular perception of tobacco products and patterns of use among male college students in India. Soc Sci Med. 2004;59:41531.
  • 67
    Scarinci IC, Silveira AF, dos Santos DF, Beech BM. Sociocultural factors associated with cigarette smoking among women in Brazilian worksites: a qualitative study. Health Promot Int. 2007;22:14654.
  • 68
    Bruce N, Rehfuess E, Metha S, Hutton G, Smith K. Indoor air pollution. In: JamisonDT, BremanJG, MeashamAR, AlleyneG, ClaesonM, EvansDB, et al (eds). Disease control priorities in developing countries. 2nd edn. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2006. pp. 793832.
  • 69
    Kjellstrom T, Lodh M, McMichael T, Ranmuthugala G, Shrestha R, Kingsland S. Air and water pollution: burden and strategies for control. In: JamisonDT, BremanJG, MeashamAR, AlleyneG, ClaesonM, EvansDB, et al (eds). Disease control priorities in developing countries. 2nd edn. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2006. pp. 81768.
  • 70
    Wipfli H, Avila-Tang E, Navas-Acien A, Kim S, Onicescu G, Yuan J, Breysse P, et al Secondhand smoke exposure among women and children: evidence from 31 countries. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:6729.
  • 71
    Ernster V, Kaufman N, Nichter M, Samet J, Yoon S-Y. Women and tobacco: moving from policy to action. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78:866948.
  • 72
    Greaves L, Kalaw C, Bottorff J. Case studies of power and control related to tobacco use during pregnancy. Women's Health Issues. 2007;17:32532.
  • 73
    Dozier AM, Ossip-Klein DJ, Diaz S, Chin NP, Sierra E, Quinones Z, TD Dye, McIntosh S, Armstrong L. Tobacco use in the Dominican Republic: understanding the culture first. Tob Control 2006:15:306.
  • 74
    Yang G, Fan L, Tan J, Qi G, Zhang Y, Samet JM, et al Smoking in China. Findings of the 1996 National Prevalence Survey. JAMA. 1999;282:124753.
  • 75
    Chomba E, Tshefu A, Onyamboko M, Kaseba C, Moore J, McClure E, et al Tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy in two African countries: Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009; submitted.
  • 76
    Nichter M, for the Quit Tobacco International Group. Introducing tobacco cessation in developing countries: an overview of Project Quit Tobacco International. Tob Control. 2006;15:1217.
  • 77
    National Cancer Institute. Risk associated with smoking cigarettes with low machine-measured yields of tar and nicotine. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 13. Bethesda, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, October 2001.
  • 78
    Kessler G. Final opinion U.S.A. v. Philip Morris USA, Inc. et al. U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. August 17, 2006.
  • 79
    WHO. World health statistics 2009. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2009.
  • 80
    Smith DR, Leggat PA. An international review of tobacco smoking in the medical profession: 1974-2004. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:115.
  • 81
    Amarin ZO. Obstetricians, gynecologists and the anti-smoking campaign: a national survey. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2005;119:15660.
  • 82
    Ng N, Prabandari YS, Padmawati RS, Okah, F, Haddock CK, Nichter M, et al Physician assessment of patient smoking in Indonesia: a public health priority. Tob Control. 2007;16:1906.
  • 83
    Warren CW, Jones NR, Chauvin J, Peruga A, for the GTSS Collaborative Group. Tobacco use and cessation counseling: cross-country. Data from the Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS), 2005-7. Tob Control. 2008;17:23847.
  • 84
    Bao Y, Duan N, Fox SA. Is some provider advice on smoking cessation better than no advice? An instrumental variable analysis of the 2001 National Health Interview Survey. Health Serv Res. 2006;41:211435.
  • 85
    Khalfan M, Waverly L. From the fields to the consumer. In: GreavesL, JategaonkarN, SanchezS (eds). Turning a new leaf: women, tobacco and the future. British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women's Health and International Network of Women Against Tobacco. Vancouver: British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women's Health, 2006. pp. 2831.
  • 86
    Minh HV, Giang KB, Bich NN, Huong NT. Tobacco farming in rural Vietnam: questionable economic gain but evident health risks. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:24.
  • 87
    Sobo E, DeMunck VC. The forest of methods. In: SoboE, DeMunckV (eds). Using methods in the field: a practical introduction and casebook. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press, 1998. pp. 1339.
  • 88
    Longo DR, Brownson RC, Johnson JC, Hewett JE, Kruse RL, Novotny TE, et al Hospital smoking bans and employee smoking behavior. JAMA. 1996;275:12527.
  • 89
    World Health Organization. World Health Organization framework convention on tobacco control. Available online at: (accessed November 15, 2009).