SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Warren CW, Jones NR, Peruga A, Chauvin J, Baptiste J-P, Costa de Silva V, et al Global youth tobacco surveillance, 2000–2007. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2008;57:121.
  • 2
    Cnattingius S. The epidemiology of smoking during pregnancy: smoking prevalence, maternal characteristics, and pregnancy outcomes. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6:S12540.
  • 3
    US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health consequences of smoking: a report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2004.
  • 4
    Rogers J. Tobacco and pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;28:15260.
  • 5
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: smokeless tobacco and some tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines. Lyon, France: IARC, 2007.
  • 6
    Anwar S, Williams SA, Scott-Smith J, Sage H, Baweja S, Singal M, et al A comparison of attitudes and practices of gutka users and non-users in Chitrakoot, India: a pilot. Prim Dent Care. 2005;12:510.
  • 7
    Chaturvedi P, Chaturvedi U, Sanyai B. Prevalence of tobacco consumption in schoolchildren in rural India–an epidemic of tobaccogenic cancers looming ahead in the Third World. J Cancer Educ. 2002;17:6.
  • 8
    Renner CC, Patten CA, Enoch C, Petraitis J, Offord KP, Angstman S, et al Focus groups of Y-K Delta Alaska Natives: attitudes toward tobacco use and tobacco dependence interventions. Prev Med. 2004;38:42131.
  • 9
    Maziak W, Ward KD, Afifi Soweid RA, Eissenberg T. Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe: a re-emerging strain in a global epidemic. Tob Control. 2004;13:32733.
  • 10
    Overland S, Hetland J, Aaro LE. Relative harm of snus and cigarettes: what do Norwegian adolescents say? Tob Control. 2008;17:4225.
  • 11
    Djordjevic MV, Doran K. Nicotine content and delivery across tobacco products. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2009;192:6182.
  • 12
    Boffetta P, Straif. Use of smokeless tobacco and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke: systematic review with meta-analysis. BMJ. 2009;339:b3060.
  • 13
    Boffetta P, Hecht S, Gray N, Gupta P, Straif K. Smokeless tobacco and cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9:66775.
  • 14
    Bloch M, Althabe F, Onyamboko M, Kaseba-Sata C, Castilla EE, Freire S, et al Tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy: an investigative survey of women in 9 developing nations. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:183340.
  • 15
    Steyn K, de Wet T, Saloojee Y, Nel H, Yach D. The influence of maternal cigarette smoking, snuff use and passive smoking on pregnancy outcomes: the Birth To Ten Study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2006;20:909.
  • 16
    National Cancer Institute, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smokeless tobacco fact sheets. Prepared for: 3rd International Conference on Smokeless tobacco: advancing Science and Protecting Public Health;2002 Sep 225; Stockholm, Sweden.
  • 17
    Gupta PC, Sreevidya S. Smokeless tobacco use, birth weight, and gestational age: population based, prospective cohort study of 1217 women in Mumbai, India. BMJ. 2004;328:1538.
  • 18
    International Institute for Population Sciences and Macro International. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), 2005–06, India: key findings. Mumbai: IIPS, 2007.
  • 19
    Chaudhry K, Prabhakar AK, Prabhakaran PS, Prased A, Singh K, Singh A. Prevalence of tobacco use in Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh in India. Final report of the study by the Indian Council of Medical Research and WHO South East Asian Regional Office, New Delhi, 2001.
  • 20
    Steyn K, Bradshaw D, Norman R, Laubscher R, Saloojee Y. Tobacco use in South Africans during 1998: the first demographic and health survey. J Cardiovasc Risk. 2002;9:16170.
  • 21
    Statistics Sweden. Stockholm (Sweden): Statistics Sweden; 2009. Available online at: http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____145246.aspx. (accessed November 13, 2009).
  • 22
    Tobaksvanor bland gravida och spädbarnsföräldrar 2006. Tobacco habits among pregnant women and infants parents in 2006. Stockholm, Sweden: Socialstyrelsen, 2008. Available online at: http://www.socialstyrelsen.se/publikationer2008/2008-125-18. (accessed November 13, 2009).
  • 23
    The Ontario Tobacco Research Unit. OTRU update: what population surveys say about smokeless tobacco use. October 2006. Available online at: http://www.otru.org/pdf/updates/update_oct2006.pdf. (accessed November 13, 2009).
  • 24
    Timberlake DS, Huh J. Demographic profiles of smokeless tobacco users in the U.S. Am J Prev Med. 2009;37:2934.
  • 25
    Spangler JG, Michielutte R, Bell RA, Knick S, Dignan MB, Summerson JH. Dual tobacco use among Native American adults in southeastern North Carolina. Prev Med. 2001;32:5218.
  • 26
    Strauss KF, Mokdad A, Ballew C, Mendlein JM, Will JC, Goldberg HI, et al The health of Navajo women: findings from the Navajo Health and Nutrition Survey, 1991–1992. J Nutr. 1997;127:2128S.
  • 27
    Patten CA, Renner CC, Decker PA, O'Campo E, Larsen K, Enoch C, et al Tobacco use and cessation among pregnant Alaska Natives from Western Alaska enrolled in the WIC program, 2001–2002. Matern Child Health J. 2008;12:306.
  • 28
    Kim SY, England L, Dietz PM, Morrow B, Perham-Hester KA. Prenatal cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among Alaska native and white women in Alaska, 1996–2003. Matern Child Health J. 2009;13:6529.
  • 29
    van der Eb MM, Leyten EM, Gavarasana S, Vandenbroucke JP, Kahn PM, Cleton FJ. Reverse smoking as a risk factor for palatal cancer: a cross-sectional study in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Int J Cancer. 1993;54:7548.
  • 30
    Alexander J, Alexander P. Gender differences in tobacco use and the commodification of tobacco in Central Borneo. Soc Sci Med. 1994;38:6038.
  • 31
    WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation. Advisory note: waterpipe tobacco smoking: health effects, research needs and recommended actions by regulators. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2005.
  • 32
    Maziak W, Rastam S, Ibrahim I, Ward KD, Shihadeh A, Eissenberg T. CO exposure, puff topography, and subjective effects in waterpipe tobacco smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11:80611.
  • 33
    Tamim H, Yunis KA, Chemaitelly H, Alameh M, Nassar AH. Effect of narghile and cigarette smoking on newborn birthweight. BJOG. 2008;115:917.
  • 34
    Bachir R, Chaaya M. Maternal smoking: determinants and associated morbidity in two areas in Lebanon. Matern Child Health J. 2008;12:298307.
  • 35
    Memon A. Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics, and attitudes. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78:130615.
  • 36
    Tamim H, Terro A, Kassem H, Ghazi A, Khamis TA, Hay MM, et al Tobacco use by university students, Lebanon, 2001. Addiction. 2003;98:9339.
  • 37
    US Department of Health and Human Services. 2006 National Youth Tobacco Survey and Key Prevalence Indicators: Table 1: percentage of students in middle school (grades 6–8) who were current users of any tobacco product, by product type, sex, and race/ethnicity–United States, 2004 and 2006. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. Available online at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/surveys/nyts/pdfs/indicators.pdf. (accessed November 13, 2009).
  • 38
    US Department of Health and Human Services. 2007 National Survey on Drug Use & Health: Detailed Tables. Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use Tables—2.1 to 2.84 (Prevalence Estimates). Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Statistics. Available online at: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k7NSDUH/tabs/LOTSect2pe.htm. (accessed November 13, 2009).
  • 39
    Eissenberg T, Ward KD, Smith-Simone S, Maziak W. Waterpipe tobacco smoking on a U.S. college campus: prevalence and correlates. J Adolesc Health. 2008;42:5269.
  • 40
    Primack BA, Sidani J, Agarwal AA, Shadel WG, Donny EC, Eissenberg TE. Prevalence of and associations with waterpipe tobacco smoking among U.S. university students. Ann Behav Med. 2008;36:816.
  • 41
    University of Florida Healthy Gators 2010 Coalition. Healthy Gators Student Survey Report 2008. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. Available online at: http://healthygators.hhp.ufl.edu/docs/Student%20Survey/2008%20HG%20Survey%20Report%20Public%203-23-09.pdf. (accessed November 13, 2009).
  • 42
    Verma RC, Chansoriya M, Kaul KK. Effect of tobacco chewing by mothers on fetal outcome. Indian Pediatr. 1983;20:10511.
  • 43
    Gupta PC, Subramoney S. Smokeless tobacco use and risk of stillbirth: a cohort study in Mumbai, India. Epidemiology. 2006;17:4751.
  • 44
    Krishna K. Tobacco chewing in pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1978;85:7268.
  • 45
    Subramoney S, Gupta PC. Anemia in pregnant women who use smokeless tobacco. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10:91720.
  • 46
    Ashfaq M, Channa MA, Malik MA, Khan D. Morphological changes in human placenta of wet snuff users. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008;20:1103.
  • 47
    Agrawal P, Chansoriya M, Kaul KK. Effect of tobacco chewing by mothers on placental morphology. Indian Pediatr. 1983;20:5615.
  • 48
    Krishnamurthy S. Strength of association of increased placental weight and smokeless tobacco use in pregnancy. Indian J Pediatr. 1991;58:8635.
  • 49
    England LJ, Levine RJ, Mills JL, Klebanoff MA, Yu KF, Cnattingius S. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in snuff users. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189:93943.
  • 50
    Hurt RD, Renner CC, Patten CA, Ebbert JO, Offord KP, Schroeder DR, et al Iqmik–a form of smokeless tobacco used by pregnant Alaska natives: nicotine exposure in their neonates. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2005;17:2819.
  • 51
    Nuwayhid IA, Yamout B, Azar G, Kambris MA. Narghile (hubble-bubble) smoking, low birth weight, and other pregnancy outcomes. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148:37583.
  • 52
    US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: a Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2004.
  • 53
    State of California. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986: chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity: September 11, 2009. Sacramento, CA: State of California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2009. Available online at: http://www.oehha.org/prop65/prop65_list/files/P65single091009.pdf. (accessed November 13, 2009).
  • 54
    Lambe M. Swedish snus for tobacco harm reduction. Lancet. 2007;370:12067.