• 1
    Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The health consequences of smoking: a report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004.
  • 2
    Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2006.
  • 3
    Roelands J, Jamison MG, Lyerly AD, James AH. Consequences of smoking during pregnancy on maternal health. J Womens Health. 2009;18:86772.
  • 4
    Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses – United States, 2000–2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57:12268.
  • 5
    Tong VT, Jones JR, Dietz PM, D'Angelo D, Bombard JM. Trends in smoking before, during, and after pregnancy – Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), United States, 31 sites, 2000–2005. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2009;58:129.
  • 6
    California Department of Public Health. Statewide Tables from the 2006 Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA) Survey: Table B1. Smoking and Alcohol Use, 2006 (Updated July 2008) [Excel] 2008. Available online at:
  • 7
    Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS): CPONDER – CDC's PRMAS On-line Data for Epidemiologic Research, Data for all states for – 2006 Tobacco Use [database on the Internet]2008 [cited 08/05/2009]. Available online at:
  • 8
    Kim SY, England LJ, Kendrick JS, Dietz PM, Callaghan WM. The contribution of clinic-based interventions to reduce prenatal smoking prevalence among US women. Am J Public Health. 2009;99:8938.
  • 9
    Fiore MC, Jaen CR, Baker T, Bailey WC, Benowitz NL, Curry SJ, et al Treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update. Clinical practice guideline. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service, 2008.
  • 10
    Jordan TR, Dake JR, Price JH. Best practices for smoking cessation in pregnancy: do obstetrician/gynecologists use them in practice? J Womens Health. 2006;15:40041.
  • 11
    Hartmann KE, Wechter ME, Payne P, Salisbury K, Jackson RD, Melvin CL. Best practice smoking cessation intervention and resource needs of prenatal care providers. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110:76570.
  • 12
    Tong VT, England LJ, Dietz PM, Asare LA. Smoking patterns and use of cessation interventions during pregnancy. Am J Prev Med. 2008;35:32733.
  • 13
    Calderon SH, Gilbert P, Jackson R, Kohn MA, Gerbert B. Cueing prenatal providers effects on discussions of intimate partner violence. Am J Prev Med. 2008;34:1347.
  • 14
    Bentz CJ, Bayley KB, Bonin KE, Fleming L, Hollis JF, Hunt JS, et al Provider feedback to improve 5A's tobacco cessation in primary care: a cluster randomized clinical trial. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:3419.
  • 15
    Cokkinides VE, Halpern MT, Barbeau EM, Ward E, Thun MJ. Racial and ethnic disparities in smoking-cessation interventions: analysis of the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Am J Prev Med. 2008;34:40412.
  • 16
    Schnoll RA, Rukstalis M, Wileyto EP, Shields AE. Smoking cessation treatment by primary care physicians: an update and call for training. Am J Prev Med. 2006;31:2339.
  • 17
    Pierce JP, White MM, Gilpin EA, Berry CC, Maklan DM, Cross J, et al 1999 California Tobacco Survey (CTS): California Department of Health Services (UC San Diego), 1999.
  • 18
    Kuehn BM. Reducing HIV risks. JAMA. 2008;299:2847.
  • 19
    Rollnick S, Miller W. What is motivational interviewing? Behav Cogn Psychother. 1995;23:32534.
  • 20
    Rollnick S, Miller WR, Butler CC. Motivational interviewing in health care. New York: Guilford Press, 2008.
  • 21
    Lumley J, Chamberlain C, Dowswell T, Oliver S, Oakley L, Watson L. Interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009:CD001055.
  • 22
    Chang JC, Dado D, Frankel RM, Rodriguez KL, Zickmund S, Ling BS, et al When pregnant patients disclose substance use: missed opportunities for behavioral change counseling. Patient Educ Couns. 2008;72:394401.
  • 23
    Herzig K, Danley D, Jackson R, Petersen R, Chamberlain L, Gerbert B. Seizing the 9-month moment: addressing behavioral risks in prenatal patients. Patient Educ Couns. 2006;61:22835.
  • 24
    Flocke SA, Kelly R, Highland J. Initiation of health behavior discussions during primary care outpatient visits. Patient Educ Couns. 2009;75:21419.
  • 25
    Weaver K, Campbell R, Mermelstein R, Wakschlag L. Pregnancy smoking in context: The influence of multiple levels of stress. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10:106573.
  • 26
    Hannover W, Thyrian JR, Ebner A, Roske K, Grempler J, Kuhl R, et al Smoking during pregnancy and postpartum: Smoking rates and intention to quit smoking or resume after pregnancy. J Womens Health. 2008;17:63140.
  • 27
    Ebert LM, Fahy K. Why do women continue to smoke in pregnancy? Women Birth. 2007;20:1618.
  • 28
    Blalock JA, Robinson JD, Wetter DW, Cinciripini PM. Relationship of DSM-IV-based depressive disorders to smoking cessation and smoking reduction in pregnant smokers. Am J Addict. 2006;15:26877.
  • 29
    Linares Scott TJ, Heil SH, Higgins ST, Badger GJ, Bernstein IM. Depressive symptoms predict smoking status among pregnant women. Addict Behav. 2009;34:7058.
  • 30
    Gerbert B, Bronstone A, Pantilat S, McPhee S, Allerton M, Moe J. When asked, patients tell: disclosure of sensitive health-risk behaviors. Med Care. 1999;37:10411.