• 1
    Jauniaux E, Burton GJ. Morphological and biological effects of maternal exposure to tobacco smoke on the feto-placental unit. Early Hum Dev. 2007;83:699706.
  • 2
    Zdravkovic T, Genbacev O, McMaster MT, Fisher SJ. The adverse effects of maternal smoking on the human placenta: a review. Placenta. 2005;26(Suppl A):S816.
  • 3
    Castles A, Adams EK, Melvin CL, Kelsch C, Boulton ML. Effects of smoking during pregnancy. Five meta-analyses. Am J Prev Med. 1999;16:20815.
  • 4
    Cnattingius S, Lambe M. Trends in smoking and overweight during pregnancy: prevalence, risks of pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Semin Perinatol. 2002;26:28695.
  • 5
    Fleming P, Blair PS. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and parental smoking. Early Hum Dev. 2007;83:7215.
  • 6
    Raatikainen K, Huurinainen P, Heinonen S. Smoking in early gestation or through pregnancy: a decision crucial to pregnancy outcome. Prev Med. 2007;44:5963.
  • 7
    Raherison C, Penard-Morand C, Moreau D, Caillaud D, Charpin D, Kopfersmitt C, et al In utero and childhood exposure to parental tobacco smoke, and allergies in schoolchildren. Respir Med. 2007;101:10717.
  • 8
    Blake KV, Gurrin LC, Evans SF, Beilin LJ, Landau LI, Stanley FJ, et al Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy, low birth weight and subsequent blood pressure in early childhood. Early Hum Dev. 2000;57:13747.
  • 9
    Fasting MH, Oien T, Storro O, Nilsen TI, Johnsen R, Vik T. Maternal smoking cessation in early pregnancy and offspring weight status at four years of age. A prospective birth cohort study. Early Hum Dev. 2009;85:1924.
  • 10
    Fried PA, James DS, Watkinson B. Growth and pubertal milestones during adolescence in offspring prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2001;23:4316.
  • 11
    Vielwerth SE, Jensen RB, Larsen T, Greisen G. The impact of maternal smoking on fetal and infant growth. Early Hum Dev. 2007;83:4915.
  • 12
    Batstra L, Hadders-Algra M, Neeleman J. Effect of antenatal exposure to maternal smoking on behavioural problems and academic achievement in childhood: prospective evidence from a Dutch birth cohort. Early Hum Dev. 2003;75:2133.
  • 13
    Weitzman M, Byrd RS, Aligne CA, Moss M. The effects of tobacco exposure on children's behavioral and cognitive functioning: implications for clinical and public health policy and future research. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2002;24:397406.
  • 14
    Crone MR, Hirasing RA, Burgmeijer RJ. Prevalence of passive smoking in infancy in the Netherlands. Patient Educ Couns. 2000;39:14953.
  • 15
    Giglia RC, Binns CW, Alfonso HS, Zhao Y. Which mothers smoke before, during and after pregnancy? Public Health. 2007;121:9429.
  • 16
    Suzuki J, Kikuma H, Kawaminami K, Shima M. Predictors of smoking cessation during pregnancy among the women of Yamato and Ayase municipalities in Japan. Public Health. 2005;119:67985.
  • 17
    Windsor RA. Smoking, Cessation and pregnancy. In: SametJM, YoonS-Y (eds). Women and the tobacco epidemic challenges for the 21st century. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2001. pp. 14762.
  • 18
    Nafstad P, Botten G, Hagen J. Partner's smoking: a major determinant for changes in women's smoking behaviour during and after pregnancy. Public Health. 1996;110:37985.
  • 19
    Grange G, Vayssiere C, Borgne A, Ouazana A, L'Huillier JP, Valensi P, et al Description of tobacco addiction in pregnant women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005;120:14651.
  • 20
    Haslam C, Draper E. Stage of change is associated with assessment of the health risks of maternal smoking among pregnant women. Soc Sci Med. 2000;51:118996.
  • 21
    Becker MH, Maiman LA. Sociobehavioral determinants of compliance with health and medical care recommendations. Med Care. 1975;13:1024.
  • 22
    Ockene J, Ma Y, Zapka J, Pbert L, Valentine Goins K, Stoddard A. Spontaneous cessation of smoking and alcohol use among low-income pregnant women. Am J Prev Med. 2002;23:1509.
  • 23
    Fagerstrom KO, Schneider NG. Measuring nicotine dependence: a review of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. J Behav Med. 1989;12:15982.
  • 24
    Etter JF. Comparing the validity of the Cigarette Dependence Scale and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;95:1529.
  • 25
    Sledjeski EM, Dierker LC, Costello D, Shiffman S, Donny E, Flay BR. Predictive validity of four nicotine dependence measures in a college sample. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;87:109.
  • 26
    Piper ME, Piasecki TM, Federman EB, Bolt DM, Smith SS, Fiore MC, et al A multiple motives approach to tobacco dependence: the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68). J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72:13954.
  • 27
    Arbuckle JL. AMOS 16.0 User's Guide, 19952007. Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.
  • 28
    Grange G, Vayssiere C, Borgne A, Ouazana A, L'Huillier JP, Valensi P, et al Characteristics of tobacco withdrawal in pregnant women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006;125:3843.