• 1
    USDHHS. Women and smoking. A report of the Surgeon General. US Dept of Health and Human Services Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health Chapter 3: Health Consequences of Tobacco use among women 2001.
  • 2
    Comstock GW, Lundin FE Jr. Parental smoking and perinatal mortality. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1967;98:70818.
  • 3
    Ahlborg G Jr, Bodin L. Tobacco smoke exposure and pregnancy outcome among working women. A prospective study at prenatal care centers in Orebro County, Sweden. Am J Epidemiol. 1991;133:33847.
  • 4
    Mau G, Netter P. The effects of paternal cigarette smoking on perinatal mortality and the incidence of malformations (author's transl). Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1974;99:11138.
  • 5
    Wigle DT, Arbuckle TE, Turner MC, Berube A, Yang Q, Liu S, et al Epidemiologic evidence of relationships between reproductive and child health outcomes and environmental chemical contaminants. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2008;11:373517.
  • 6
    Stillerman KP, Mattison DR, Giudice LC, Woodruff TJ. Environmental exposures and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a review of the science. Reprod Sci. 2008;15:63150.
  • 7
    OEHHA. Health Effects Of Exposure To Environmental Tobacco smoke. Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant. Office Of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) of the California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA). Chapter 3. Developmental toxicity 1. Perinatal manifestations of prenatal ETS exposure, 2005.
  • 8
    US Department of Health and Human Services CfDCaP. The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the Surgeon General. – Atlanta, Ga. Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. Chapter 5. Reproductive and developmental effects from exposure to second hand smoke, 2006.
  • 9
    Leonardi-Bee J, Smyth A, Britton J, Coleman T. Environmental tobacco smoke and fetal health: systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008;93:F35161.
  • 10
    WHO. Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Implementing Smoke-free Environments. World Health Organization, 2009.
  • 11
    Gupta PC, Subramoney S. Smokeless tobacco use and risk of stillbirth: a cohort study in Mumbai, India. Epidemiology. 2006;17:4751.
  • 12
    Gupta PC, Sreevidya S. Smokeless tobacco use, birth weight, and gestational age: population based, prospective cohort study of 1217 women in Mumbai, India. BMJ. 2004;328:1538.
  • 13
    Roy TS, Andrews JE, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. Nicotine evokes cell death in embryonic rat brain during neurulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998;287:113644.
  • 14
    Rodier PM. Environmental causes of central nervous system maldevelopment. Pediatrics. 2004;113(Suppl 4):107683.
  • 15
    Kamendi H, Stephens C, Dergacheva O, Wang X, Huang ZG, Bouairi E, et al Prenatal nicotine exposure alters the nicotinic receptor subtypes that modulate excitation of parasympathetic cardiac neurons in the nucleus ambiguus from primarily alpha3beta2 and/or alpha6betaX to alpha3beta4. Neuropharmacology. 2006;51:606.
  • 16
    Hunt CE. The cardiorespiratory control hypothesis for sudden infant death syndrome. Clin Perinatol. 1992;19:75771.
  • 17
    Gupta PC. Survey of sociodemographic characteristics of tobacco use among 99,598 individuals in Bombay, India using handheld computers. Tob Control. 1996;5:11420.
  • 18
    Wu T, Hu Y, Chen C, Yang F, Li Z, Fang Z, et al Passive smoking, metabolic gene polymorphisms, and infant birth weight in a prospective cohort study of Chinese women. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166:31322.
  • 19
    Whyatt RM, Jedrychowski W, Hemminki K, Santella RM, Tsai WY, Yang K, et al Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA damage and cigarette smoke exposures in paired maternal and newborn blood samples as a measure of differential susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10:5818.
  • 20
    Sasaki S, Sata F, Katoh S, Saijo Y, Nakajima S, Washino N, et al Adverse birth outcomes associated with maternal smoking and polymorphisms in the N-Nitrosamine-metabolizing enzyme genes NQO1 and CYP2E1. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167:71926.
  • 21
    Miranda ML, Maxson P, Edwards S. Environmental contributions to disparities in pregnancy outcomes. Epidemiol Rev. 2009;31:6783.
  • 22
    Nelson E, Jodscheit K, Guo Y. Maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and fetal developmental toxicity. Part 1: gross morphological effects. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1999;18:2526.
  • 23
    Nelson E, Goubet-Wiemers C, Guo Y, Jodscheit K. Maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and foetal developmental toxicity. Part 2: histological changes. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1999;18:25764.
  • 24
    Slotkin TA. Cholinergic systems in brain development and disruption by neurotoxicants: nicotine, environmental tobacco smoke, organophosphates. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004;198:13251.
  • 25
    Perera FP, Jedrychowski W, Rauh V, Whyatt RM. Molecular epidemiologic research on the effects of environmental pollutants on the fetus. Environ Health Perspect. 1999;107(Suppl 3):45160.
  • 26
    Grant SG. Qualitatively and quantitatively similar effects of active and passive maternal tobacco smoke exposure on in utero mutagenesis at the HPRT locus. BMC Pediatr. 2005;5:20.
  • 27
    Adgent MA. Environmental tobacco smoke and sudden infant death syndrome: a review. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2006;77:6985.