Objective. To estimate if findings in women with chronic endometritis (CE) at fluid hysteroscopy correlate with the severity of inflammation at histology and to assess the possibility to score the severity of inflammation by fluid hysteroscopy. Design. Controlled clinical study. Setting. University hospital. Population. A total of 211 outpatient women with a hysteroscopic diagnosis of CE and 30 control women without any such signs. Methods. All patients underwent endometrial biopsy by means of a 3-mm Novak's curette connected to a 20-ml syringe without any anesthesia. Main outcome measures. Hysteroscopic records were reviewed and compared with histologic findings by using an arbitrary inflammation score (Grades 0–2, no inflammation to severe infiltration, nodules and glands disruption, respectively). Results. A significant correlation between focal hyperemia and isolated micropolyps with Grade 1 inflammation and between generalized hyperemia, presence of diffuse micropolyps and polypoid endometrium with Grade 2 inflammation was found. Hysteroscopic and histologic grading showed good agreement (kappa index = 0.62). Conclusions. In women affected by CE the severity of histological alterations may be reliably evaluated by fluid hysteroscopy. This information may be clinically useful not only for giving a prognosis and as a basis for interpretation of patients' complaints, but also for monitoring treatment.