• androgen;
  • clitoris;
  • corpus spongiosum;
  • female anatomy;
  • transsexualism

Background. The extension of the female corpus spongiosum is subject to controversy. The anterior continuation of the vestibular bulbs, or pars intermedia, is not commonly recognized as part of the corpus spongiosum. Some authors deny this part of the corpus spongiosum exists in females.

Material and Methods. To investigate this controversy, anatomic and histologic studies were performed of the female corpus spongiosum. The specimens were taken from female-to-male transsexual surgical patients and from fresh female cadavers. They were compared to surgically amputated penises to establish the similarity in male and female anatomy.

Results Conclusions. The female corpus spongiosum is proven to extend anteriorly from the bilateral vestibular bulbs to terminate as the enlarged glans clitoridis. This latter structure also consists of spongious tissue. The spongiosum is hypertrophied in hormonally treated female-to-male transsexuals. The cleft vulvar anatomy is homologue to its non-cleft male counterpart.