Gap ecology in Florida scrub: Species occurrence, diversity and gap properties


  • Nomenclature: Wunderlin & Hansen (2003) for vascular plants; Brodo et al. (2001) for ground lichens unless otherwise noted.

Corresponding author; E-mail


Questions: Studies of gap effects have been conducted mainly in forests. We studied gap ecology in a pyrogenic Ceratiola ericoides (Florida rosemary) dominated shrubland and asked: How do gap size and the frequency of large gaps change across the fire chronosequence? Do larger gaps differ from smaller gaps in vegetation structure or species diversity? Are effects of gaps independent of, or dependent upon, time-since-fire? Are larger gaps refugia for herbs and subshrubs?

Location: Archbold Biological Station, Lake Wales Ridge, south-central Florida, USA.

Methods: We investigated plant species occurrence and diversity in 805 gaps (areas free of shrubs taller than 50 cm) in 28 fire-dependent Florida rosemary scrub sites. We collected quantitative cover data in a subset of seven sites.

Results: Gap area distribution was lognormal. The largest gaps occurred throughout all but the longest time-since-fire intervals. Gaps were smallest in the longest unburned site but otherwise did not show strong patterns across the fire chronosequence. Species diversity measures increased with increasing gap area, with herbaceous diversity increasing with both gap area and bare sand. Herb diversity (H') decreased with time-since-fire. Larger gaps are refugia for some species. Of 14 species occurring in 25–75% of gaps, 13 had increased occupancy with increasing gap area, and gap area was the strongest predictor of occupancy for seven species of herbs and shrubs. Time-since-fire was the strongest predictor of occupancy for five species, including four ground lichens that increased with time-since-fire.

Conclusions: Community structure within Florida scrub gaps is influenced by gap size, which in turn is affected by fire, the dominant ecological disturbance. We present a conceptual model that considers both gap size and time-since-fire as drivers of community structure and herbaceous plant diversity in Florida scrub. Because gap properties (independently of fire) have strong influences on species assemblages in Florida rosemary scrub gaps, fire management should consider the number and size of gaps across the landscape.