SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, et al. Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin. 2009; 59:(in press).
  • 2
    Petrylak DP. The current role of chemotherapy in metastatic hormone–refractory prostate cancer. Urology. 2005; 65: 37.
  • 3
    Young HH. Early diagnosis and radical cure of carcinoma of the prostate. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp. 1905; 16: 314321.
  • 4
    Thompson IM, Ernst JJ, Gangai MP, Spence CR. Adenocarcinoma of the prostate: results of routine urological screening. J Urol. 1984; 132: 690692.
  • 5
    Merrill RM, Weed DL, Feuer EJ. The lifetime risk of developing prostate cancer in white and black men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997; 6: 763768.
  • 6
    RiesLAG, MelbertD, KrapchoM, et al, eds. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2005. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute; 2008.
  • 7
    Delongchamps NB, Singh A, Haas GP. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in Africa: another step in the understanding of the disease? Curr Probl Cancer. 2007; 31: 226236.
  • 8
    Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Rank Order Life Expectancy at Birth. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency; 2009.
  • 9
    Catalona WJ, Smith DS, Ratliff TL, et al. Measurement of prostate–specific antigen in serum as a screening test for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 1991; 324: 11561161.
  • 10
    Brawer MK, Chetner MP, Beatie J, Buchner DM, Vessella RL, Lange PH. Screening for prostatic carcinoma with prostate specific antigen. J Urol. 1992; 147: 841845.
  • 11
    Catalona WJ, Richie JP, deKernion JB, et al. Comparison of prostate specific antigen concentration versus prostate specific antigen density in the early detection of prostate cancer: receiver operating characteristic curves. J Urol. 1994; 152: 20312036.
  • 12
    Merrill RM, Weed DL. Measuring the public health burden of cancer in the United States through lifetime and age–conditional risk estimates. Ann Epidemiol. 2001; 11: 547553.
  • 13
    Smith RA, Cokkinides V, Brawley OW. Cancer screening in the United States, 2008: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and cancer screening issues. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008; 58: 161179.
  • 14
    Ross LE, Berkowitz Z, Ekwueme DU. Use of the prostate–specific antigen test among U.S. men: findings from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008; 17: 636644.
  • 15
    Edwards BK, Brown ML, Wingo PA, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2002, featuring population- based trends in cancer treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005; 97: 14071427.
  • 16
    Lu-Yao GL, Friedman M, Yao SL. Use of radical prostatectomy among Medicare beneficiaries before and after the introduction of prostate specific antigen testing. J Urol. 1997; 157: 22192222.
  • 17
    Denberg TD. Re: racial/ethnic disparities in the treatment of localized/regional prostate cancer. J Urol. 2004; 172: 15471548.
  • 18
    Cooperberg MR, Lubeck DP, Meng MV, Mehta SS, Carroll PR. The changing face of low–risk prostate cancer: trends in clinical presentation and primary management. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 21412149.
  • 19
    Klabunde CN, Potosky AL, Harlan LC, Kramer BS. Trends and black/white differences in treatment for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Med Care. 1998; 36: 13371348.
  • 20
    Shavers VL, Brown M, Klabunde CN, et al. Race/ethnicity and the intensity of medical monitoring under ‘watchful waiting’ for prostate cancer. Med Care. 2004; 42: 239250.
  • 21
    Wilt TJ. Prostate carcinoma practice patterns: what do they tell us about the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of patients with prostate carcinoma? Cancer. 2000; 88: 12771281.
  • 22
    Potosky AL, Davis WW, Hoffman RM, et al. Five–year outcomes after prostatectomy or radiotherapy for prostate cancer: the prostate cancer outcomes study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004; 96: 13581367.
  • 23
    Boyle P. Screening for prostate cancer: have you had your cholesterol measured? BJU Int. 2003; 92: 191199.
  • 24
    Moul JW, Connelly RR, Lubeck DP, et al. Predicting risk of prostate specific antigen recurrence after radical prostatectomy with the Center for Prostate Disease Research and Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor databases. J Urol. 2001; 166: 13221327.
  • 25
    Wood HM, Reuther AM, Gilligan TD, et al. Rates of biochemical remission remain higher in black men compared to white men after radical prostatectomy despite similar trends in prostate specific antigen induced stage migration. J Urol. 2007; 178: 12711276.
  • 26
    Lu–Yao GL, Potosky AL, Albertsen PC, et al. Follow–up prostate cancer treatments after radical prostatectomy: a population–based study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996; 88: 166173.
  • 27
    Etzioni R, Tsodikov A, Mariotto A, et al. Quantifying the role of PSA screening in the US prostate cancer mortality decline. Cancer Causes Control. 2008; 19: 175181.
  • 28
    Concato J, Wells CK, Horwitz RI, et al. The effectiveness of screening for prostate cancer: a nested case–control study. Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166: 3843.
  • 29
    Marcella SW, Rhoads GG, Carson JL, Merlino F, Wilcox H. Prostate–specific antigen screening and mortality from prostate cancer. J Gen Intern Med. 2008; 23: 248253.
  • 30
    Weinmann S, Richert–Boe K, Glass AG, Weiss NS. Prostate cancer screening and mortality: a case–control study (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2004; 15: 133138.
  • 31
    Kopec JA, Goel V, Bunting PS, et al. Screening with prostate specific antigen and metastatic prostate cancer risk: a population based case–control study. J Urol. 2005; 174: 495499.
  • 32
    Seidenfeld J, Samson DJ, Hasselblad V, et al. Single–therapy androgen suppression in men with advanced prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta–analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2000; 132: 566577.
  • 33
    Bartsch G, Horninger W, Klocker H, et al. Tyrol Prostate Cancer Demonstration Project: early detection, treatment, outcome, incidence and mortality. BJU Int. 2008; 101: 809816.
  • 34
    Collin SM, Martin RM, Metcalfe C, et al. Prostate–cancer mortality in the USA and UK in 1975–2004: an ecological study. Lancet Oncol. 2008; 9: 445452.
  • 35
    Lu–Yao G, Albertsen PC, Stanford JL, et al. Screening, treatment, and prostate cancer mortality in the Seattle area and Connecticut: fifteen–year follow–up. J Gen Intern Med. 2008; 23: 18091814.
  • 36
    Etzioni R, Penson DF, Legler JM, et al. Overdiagnosis due to prostate–specific antigen screening: lessons from U.S. prostate cancer incidence trends. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002; 94: 981990.
  • 37
    Draisma G, Boer R, Otto SJ, et al. Lead times and overdetection due to prostate–specific antigen screening: estimates from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 868878.
  • 38
    Ward E, Halpern M, Schrag N, et al. Association of insurance with cancer care utilization and outcomes. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008; 58: 931.
  • 39
    Begg CB, Riedel ER, Bach PB, et al. Variations in morbidity after radical prostatectomy. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346: 11381144.
  • 40
    Lu–Yao GL, Albertsen P, Warren J, Yao SL. Effect of age and surgical approach on complications and short–term mortality after radical prostatectomy–a population- based study. Urology. 1999; 54: 301307.
  • 41
    Harris R, Lohr KN. Screening for prostate cancer: an update of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2002; 137: 917929.
  • 42
    Stanford JL, Noonan EA, Iwasaki L, et al. A polymorphism in the CYP17 gene and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002; 11: 243247.
  • 43
    Thompson IM, Thrasher JB, Aus G, et al. Guideline for the Management of Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer. Linthicum, Md: American Urological Association; 2007 update. J Urol. 2007; 177: 218631.
  • 44
    Andriole GL, Grubb RL III, Buys SS, et al. Mortality results from a randomized prostate–cancer screening trial. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360: 13101319.
  • 45
    Schroder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ, et al. Screening and prostate–cancer mortality in a randomized European study. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360: 13201328.
  • 46
    Eichler K, Hempel S, Wilby J, et al. Diagnostic value of systematic biopsy methods in the investigation of prostate cancer: a systematic review. J Urol. 2006; 175: 16051612.
  • 47
    Kolata G. It was medical gospel, but it wasn't true. New York Times. May 30, 2004; §4: 7.
  • 48
    Carvalhal GF, Smith DS, Mager DE, Ramos C, Catalona WJ. Digital rectal examination for detecting prostate cancer at prostate specific antigen levels of 4 ng./ml. or less. J Urol. 1999; 161: 835839.
  • 49
    Gilbert SM, Benson MC, McKiernan JM. Linkage disequilibrium between the androgen receptor gene CAG and GGC repeats in the African–American population. Curr Urol Rep. 2002; 3: 189193.
  • 50
    Thompson IM, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, et al. The influence of finasteride on the development of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349: 215224.
  • 51
    Thompson IM, Pauler DK, Goodman PJ, et al. Prevalence of prostate cancer among men with a prostate–specific antigen level < or = 4.0 ng per milliliter. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 22392246.
  • 52
    Porter MP, Stanford JL, Lange PH. The distribution of serum prostate–specific antigen levels among American men: implications for prostate cancer prevalence and screening. Prostate. 2006; 66: 10441051.
  • 53
    Lucia MS, Darke AK, Goodman PJ, et al. Pathologic characteristics of cancers detected in The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial: implications for prostate cancer detection and chemoprevention. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2008; 1: 167173.
  • 54
    Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Platz EA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Risk factors for prostate cancer incidence and progression in the health professionals follow–up study. Int J Cancer. 2007; 121: 15711578.
  • 55
    Morgan TO, Jacobsen SJ, McCarthy WF, et al. Age–specific reference ranges for prostate–specific antigen in black men. N Engl J Med. 1996; 335: 304310.
  • 56
    Parekh DJ, Ankerst DP, Higgins BA, et al. External validation of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator in a screened population. Urology. 2006; 68: 11521155.
  • 57
    Reed A, Ankerst DP, Pollock BH, Thompson IM, Parekh DJ. Current age and race adjusted prostate specific antigen threshold values delay diagnosis of high grade prostate cancer. J Urol. 2007; 178: 19291932.
  • 58
    Pinsky PF, Andriole G, Crawford ED, et al. Prostate–specific antigen velocity and prostate cancer gleason grade and stage. Cancer. 2007; 109: 16891695.
  • 59
    D'Amico AV, Chen MH, Roehl KA, Catalona WJ. Identifying patients at risk for significant versus clinically insignificant postoperative prostate–specific antigen failure. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 49754979.
  • 60
    Etzioni RD, Ankerst DP, Weiss NS, Inoue LY, Thompson IM. Is prostate–specific antigen velocity useful in early detection of prostate cancer? A critical appraisal of the evidence. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007; 99: 15101515.
  • 61
    Stephan C, Stroebel G, Heinau M, et al. The ratio of prostate–specific antigen (PSA) to prostate volume (PSA density) as a parameter to improve the detection of prostate carcinoma in PSA values in the range of <4 ng/mL. Cancer. 2005; 104: 9931003.
  • 62
    Lee R, Localio AR, Armstrong K, Malkowicz SB, Schwartz JS. A meta–analysis of the performance characteristics of the free prostate–specific antigen test. Urology. 2006; 67: 762768.
  • 63
    Partin AW, Brawer MK, Bartsch G, et al. Complexed prostate specific antigen improves specificity for prostate cancer detection: results of a prospective multicenter clinical trial. J Urol. 2003; 170: 17871791.
  • 64
    Catalona WJ, Richie JP, Ahmann FR, et al. Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men. J Urol. 1994; 151: 12831290.
  • 65
    Whitmore WF, Jr. Natural history of low- stage prostatic cancer and the impact of early detection. Urol Clin North Am. 1990; 17: 689697.
  • 66
    Thompson IM, Ankerst DP, Chi C, et al. Operating characteristics of prostate–specific antigen in men with an initial PSA level of 3.0 ng/ml or lower. JAMA. 2005; 294: 6670.
  • 67
    Parekh DJ, Ankerst DP, Troyer D, Srivastava S, Thompson IM. Biomarkers for prostate cancer detection. J Urol. 2007; 178: 22522259.
  • 68
    Mallick S, Romana M, Blanchet P, Multigner L. GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer in a Caribbean population of African descent. Urology. 2007; 69: 11651169.
  • 69
    Ankerst DP, Groskopf J, Day JR, et al. Predicting prostate cancer risk through incorporation of prostate cancer gene 3. J Urol. 2008; 180: 13031308.
  • 70
    Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, et al. Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009; 457: 910914.
  • 71
    Canary Foundation. Palo Alto, Calif: Canary Foundation; May 15, 2009. http://www.canaryfoundation.org.
  • 72
    Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA. 2009; 301: 3951.
  • 73
    Redman MW, Tangen CM, Goodman PJ, et al. Finasteride does not increase the risk of high–grade prostate cancer: a bias–adjusted modeling approach. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2008; 1: 174181.
  • 74
    Cohen YC, Liu KS, Heyden NL, et al. Detection bias due to the effect of finasteride on prostate volume: a modeling approach for analysis of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007; 99: 13661374.
  • 75
    Logothetis CJ, Schellhammer PF. High-grade prostate cancer and the prostate cancer prevention trial. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2008; 1: 151152.
  • 76
    Kramer BS, Hagerty KL, Justman S, et al. Use of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors for prostate cancer chemoprevention: American Society of Clinical Oncology/American Urological Association 2008 Clinical Practice Guideline. J Urol. 2009; 181: 16421657.