Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer and ranks eighth as a cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Although guidelines assist in treatment, the art of managing bladder cancer, such as the decision to use neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the timing of cystectomy, is still variable. Bladder cancer has a propensity to recur, and with recurrence, a significant number of cases progress, which makes the early detection of high-risk patients imperative. Advances in detection, surveillance, and treatment of bladder cancer are reviewed in this article. CA Cancer J Clin 2010. © 2010 American Cancer Society, Inc.