• 1
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E. Cancer statistics, 2010. CA Cancer J Clin. In Press.
  • 2
    Soloway MS, Sofer M, Vaidya A. Contemporary management of stage T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol. 2002; 167: 15731583.
  • 3
    Saad A, Hanbury DC, McNicholas TA, Boustead GB, Morgan S, Woodman AC. A study comparing various noninvasive methods of detecting bladder cancer in urine. BJU Int. 2002; 89: 369373.
  • 4
    Sylvester RJ, van der MA, Lamm DL. Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin reduces the risk of progression in patients with superficial bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of the published results of randomized clinical trials. J Urol. 2002; 168: 19641970.
  • 5
    Jordan AM, Weingarten J, Murphy WM. Transitional cell neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Can biologic potential be predicted from histologic grading? Cancer. 1987; 60: 27662774.
  • 6
    Avritscher EB, Cooksley CD, Grossman HB, et al. Clinical model of lifetime cost of treating bladder cancer and associated complications. Urology. 2006; 68: 549553.
  • 7
    Yabroff KR, Lamont EB, Mariotto A, et al. Cost of care for elderly cancer patients in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008; 100: 630641.
  • 8
    Messing EM, Madeb R, Young T, et al. Long-term outcome of hematuria home screening for bladder cancer in men. Cancer. 2006; 107: 21732179.
  • 9
    Golijanin DJ, Kakiashvili D, Madeb RR, Messing EM, Lerner SP. Chemoprevention of bladder cancer. World J Urol. 2006; 24: 445472.
  • 10
    HornerMJ, RiesLA, KrapchoM, et al, eds. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2006. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2009.
  • 11
    American Cancer Society. Smoking and Cancer Mortality Table. Published 2009. Updated September 18, 2009. Accessed January 20, 2010.
  • 12
    Vineis P, Pirastu R. Aromatic amines and cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 1997; 8: 346355.
  • 13
    Brennan P, Bogillot O, Cordier S, et al. Cigarette smoking and bladder cancer in men: a pooled analysis of 11 case-control studies. Int J Cancer. 2000; 86: 289294.
  • 14
    Delclos GL, Lerner SP. Occupational risk factors. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 2008: 5863.
  • 15
    Nilsson S, Ullen A. Chemotherapy-induced bladder cancer. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 2008: 8992.
  • 16
    Leppert JT, Shvarts O, Kawaoka K, Lieberman R, Belldegrun AS, Pantuck AJ. Prevention of bladder cancer: a review. Eur Urol. 2006; 49: 226234.
  • 17
    Chiou HY, Chiou ST, Hsu YH, et al. Incidence of transitional cell carcinoma and arsenic in drinking water: a follow-up study of 8,102 residents in an arseniasis-endemic area in northeastern Taiwan. Am J Epidemiol. 2001; 153: 411418.
  • 18
    Nortier JL, Martinez MC, Schmeiser HH, et al. Urothelial carcinoma associated with the use of a Chinese herb (Aristolochia fangchi). N Engl J Med. 2000; 342: 16861692.
  • 19
    Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK, et al. Fluid intake and the risk of bladder cancer in men. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340: 13901397.
  • 20
    Geoffroy-Perez B, Cordier S. Fluid consumption and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a multicenter case-control study. Int J Cancer. 2001; 93: 880887.
  • 21
    Silverman DT, Devesa SS, Moore LE, Rothman N. Bladder cancer. In: SchottenfeldD, FraumeniJF, eds. Cancer, Epidemiology, and Prevention. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006: 11011127.
  • 22
    Mostafa MH, Sheweita SA, O'Connor PJ. Relationship between schistosomiasis and bladder cancer. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999; 12: 97111.
  • 23
    Shokeir AA. Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder: pathology, diagnosis and treatment. BJU Int. 2004; 93: 216220.
  • 24
    Sandhu JS, Vickers AJ, Bochner B, Donat SM, Herr HW, Dalbagni G. Clinical characteristics of bladder cancer in patients previously treated with radiation for prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2006; 98: 5962.
  • 25
    Wakui M, Shiigai T. Urinary tract cancer screening through analysis of urinary red blood cell volume distribution. Int J Urol. 2000; 7: 248253.
  • 26
    Grossfeld GD, Wolf JS Jr, Litwan MS, et al. Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria in adults: summary of the AUA best practice policy recommendations. Am Fam Physician. 2001; 63: 11451154.
  • 27
    Madeb R, Messing EM. Gender, racial and age differences in bladder cancer incidence and mortality. Urol Oncol. 2004; 22: 8692.
  • 28
    Johnson EK, Daignault S, Zhang Y, Lee CT. Patterns of hematuria referral to urologists: does a gender disparity exist? Urology. 2008; 72: 498502; discussion 502–493.
  • 29
    Herr HW, Schneider M. Outpatient flexible cystoscopy in men: a randomized study of patient tolerance. J Urol. 2001; 165: 19711972.
  • 30
    Denzinger S, Burger M, Walter B, et al. Clinically relevant reduction in risk of recurrence of superficial bladder cancer using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence diagnosis: 8-year results of prospective randomized study. Urology. 2007; 69: 675679.
  • 31
    Zaak D, Karl A, Knuchel R, et al. Diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder using fluorescence endoscopy. BJU Int. 2005; 96: 217222.
  • 32
    Filbeck T, Pichlmeier U, Knuechel R, Wieland WF, Roessler W. Do patients profit from 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence diagnosis in transurethral resection of bladder carcinoma? Urology. 2002; 60: 10251028.
  • 33
    Schumacher MC, Holmang S, Davidsson T, Friedrich B, Pedersen J, Wiklund NP. Transurethral resection of non-muscle-invasive bladder transitional cell cancers with or without 5-aminolevulinic acid under visible and fluorescent light: results of a prospective, randomised, multicentre study. Eur Urol. 2010; 57: 293299.
  • 34
    Montie JE, Clark PE, Eisenberger MA, et al. Bladder cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw In Press. 2010.
  • 35
    Hall MC, Chang SS, Dalbagni G, et al. Guideline for the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (stages Ta, T1, and Tis): 2007 update. J Urol. 2007; 178: 23142330.
  • 36
    Grobner T. Gadolinium—a specific trigger for the development of nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006; 21: 11041108.
  • 37
    Chrysochou C, Power A, Shurrab AE, et al. Low risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in nondialysis patients who have chronic kidney disease and are investigated with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010; 5: 484489.
  • 38
    Saksena MA, Dahl DM, Harisinghani MG. New imaging modalities in bladder cancer. World J Urol. 2006; 24: 473480.
  • 39
    Tekes A, Kamel I, Imam K, et al. Dynamic MRI of bladder cancer: evaluation of staging accuracy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005; 184: 121127.
  • 40
    Arslan H, Ceylan K, Harman M, Yilmaz Y, Temizoz O, Can S. Virtual computed tomography cystoscopy in bladder pathologies. Int Braz J Urol. 2006; 32: 147154; discussion 154.
  • 41
    Kagadis GC, Siablis D, Liatsikos EN, Petsas T, Nikiforidis GC. Virtual endoscopy of the urinary tract. Asian J Androl. 2006; 8: 3138.
  • 42
    Panebianco V, Sciarra A, Di Martino M, et al. Bladder carcinoma: MDCT cystography and virtual cystoscopy [abstract]. Abdom Imaging. [published online ahead of print May 27, 2009.]
  • 43
    Tsili A, Tsampoulas C, Chatziparaskevas N, et al. Computed tomographic virtual cystoscopy for the detection of urinary bladder neoplasms. Eur Urol. 2004; 46: 579585.
  • 44
    Kishore TA, George GK, Bhat S. Virtual cystoscopy by intravesical instillation of dilute contrast medium: preliminary experience. J Urol. 2006; 175: 870874.
  • 45
    Bouchelouche K, Oehr P. Positron emission tomography and positron emission tomography/computerized tomography of urological malignancies: an update review. J Urol. 2008; 179: 3445.
  • 46
    Drieskens O, Oyen R, Van Poppel H, Vankan Y, Flamen P, Mortelmans L. FDG-PET for preoperative staging of bladder cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2005; 32: 14121417.
  • 47
    Kibel AS, Dehdashti F, Katz MD, et al. Prospective study of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for staging of muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27: 43144320.
  • 48
    Dutta SC, Smith JA Jr, Shappell SB, Coffey CS, Chang SS, Cookson MS. Clinical under staging of high risk nonmuscle invasive urothelial carcinoma treated with radical cystectomy. J Urol. 2001; 166: 490493.
  • 49
    Herr HW. The value of a second transurethral resection in evaluating patients with bladder tumors. J Urol. 1999; 162: 7476.
  • 50
    Ficarra V, Dalpiaz O, Alrabi N, Novara G, Galfano A, Artibani W. Correlation between clinical and pathological staging in a series of radical cystectomies for bladder carcinoma. BJU Int. 2005; 95: 786790.
  • 51
    Nieder AM, Brausi M, Lamm D, et al. Management of stage T1 tumors of the bladder: International Consensus Panel. Urology. 2005; 66: 108125.
  • 52
    Black PC, Brown GA, Grossman HB, Dinney CP. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for bladder cancer. World J Urol. 2006; 24: 531542.
  • 53
    Shabsigh A, Bochner BH. Use of nomograms as predictive tools in bladder cancer. World J Urol. 2006; 24: 489498.
  • 54
    Montie JE, Clark PE, Eisenberger MA, et al. Bladder cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2009; 7: 839.
  • 55
    Stein JP, Lieskovsky G, Cote R, et al. Radical cystectomy in the treatment of invasive bladder cancer: long-term results in 1,054 patients. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 666675.
  • 56
    Grossman HB, Natale RB, Tangen CM, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus cystectomy compared with cystectomy alone for locally advanced bladder cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349: 859866.
  • 57
    Urinary bladder. In: EdgeSB, ByrdDR, ComptonCC, FritzAG, GreeneFL, Trotti, A, eds. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2010: 497502.
  • 58
    Urinary bladder. In: GreeneFL, PageDL, FlemingID, et al, eds. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 6th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2002: 367374.
  • 59
    Leissner J, Ghoneim MA, Abol-Enein H, et al. Extended radical lymphadenectomy in patients with urothelial bladder cancer: results of a prospective multicenter study. J Urol. 2004; 171: 139144.
  • 60
    Millan-Rodriguez F, Chechile-Toniolo G, Salvador-Bayarri J, Palou J, Algaba F, Vicente-Rodriguez J. Primary superficial bladder cancer risk groups according to progression, mortality and recurrence. J Urol. 2000; 164: 680684.
  • 61
    Millan-Rodriguez F, Chechile-Toniolo G, Salvador-Bayarri J, Palou J, Vicente-Rodriguez J. Multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors of primary superficial bladder cancer. J Urol. 2000; 163: 7378.
  • 62
    Lotan Y, Gupta A, Shariat SF, et al. Lymphovascular invasion is independently associated with overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local and distant recurrence in patients with negative lymph nodes at radical cystectomy. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 65336539.
  • 63
    Kamat AM, Gee JR, Dinney CP, et al. The case for early cystectomy in the treatment of nonmuscle invasive micropapillary bladder carcinoma. J Urol. 2006; 175: 881885.
  • 64
    Choong NW, Quevedo JF, Kaur JS. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The Mayo Clinic experience. Cancer. 2005; 103: 11721178.
  • 65
    Hernandez S, Lopez-Knowles E, Lloreta J, et al. Prospective study of FGFR3 mutations as a prognostic factor in nonmuscle invasive urothelial bladder carcinomas. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 36643671.
  • 66
    Montironi R, Lopez-Beltran A. The 2004 WHO classification of bladder tumors: a summary and commentary. Int J Surg Pathol. 2005; 13: 143153.
  • 67
    Amin MB. Histological variants of urothelial carcinoma: diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic implications. Mod Pathol. 2009; 22( suppl 2): S96S118.
  • 68
    Wasco MJ, Daignault S, Zhang Y, et al. Urothelial carcinoma with divergent histologic differentiation (mixed histologic features) predicts the presence of locally advanced bladder cancer when detected at transurethral resection. Urology. 2007; 70: 6974.
  • 69
    Rogers CG, Palapattu GS, Shariat SF, et al. Clinical outcomes following radical cystectomy for primary nontransitional cell carcinoma of the bladder compared to transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol. 2006; 175: 20482053; discussion 2053.
  • 70
    Black PC, Brown GA, Dinney CP. The impact of variant histology on the outcome of bladder cancer treated with curative intent. Urol Oncol. 2009; 27: 37.
  • 71
    Zhai QJ, Black J, Ayala AG, Ro JY. Histologic variants of infiltrating urothelial carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007; 131: 12441256.
  • 72
    Lagwinski N, Thomas A, Stephenson AJ, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder: a clinicopathologic analysis of 45 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007; 31: 17771787.
  • 73
    Laboratory Identification of Parasites of Public Health Concern. Parasites and Health: Schistosomiasis. Accessed July 20, 2009.
  • 74
    Herr HW, Bochner BH, Sharp D, Dalbagni G, Reuter VE. Urachal carcinoma: contemporary surgical outcomes. J Urol. 2007; 178: 7478; discussion 78.
  • 75
    Gopalan A, Sharp DS, Fine SW, et al. Urachal carcinoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of 24 cases with outcome correlation. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009; 33: 659668.
  • 76
    Pinthus JH, Haddad R, Trachtenberg J, et al. Population based survival data on urachal tumors. J Urol. 2006; 175: 20422047; discussion 2047.
  • 77
    Blomjous CE, Vos W, De Voogt HJ, Van der Valk P, Meijer CJ. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A clinicopathologic, morphometric, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of 18 cases. Cancer. 1989; 64: 13471357.
  • 78
    Holmang S, Borghede G, Johansson SL. Primary small cell carcinoma of the bladder: a report of 25 cases. J Urol. 1995; 153: 18201822.
  • 79
    Siefker-Radtke AO, Dinney CP, Abrahams NA, et al. Evidence supporting preoperative chemotherapy for small cell carcinoma of the bladder: a retrospective review of the M. D. Anderson cancer experience. J Urol. 2004; 172: 481484.
  • 80
    Abbas F, Civantos F, Benedetto P, Soloway MS. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder and prostate. Urology. 1995; 46: 617630.
  • 81
    Siefker-Radtke AO, Kamat AM, Grossman HB, et al. Phase II clinical trial of neoadjuvant alternating doublet chemotherapy with ifosfamide/doxorubicin and etoposide/cisplatin in small-cell urothelial cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27: 25922597.
  • 82
    Drew PA, Furman J, Civantos F, Murphy WM. The nested variant of transitional cell carcinoma: an aggressive neoplasm with innocuous histology. Mod Pathol. 1996; 9: 989994.
  • 83
    Lin O, Cardillo M, Dalbagni G, Linkov I, Hutchinson B, Reuter VE. Nested variant of urothelial carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases. Mod Pathol. 2003; 16: 12891298.
  • 84
    Wright JL, Black PC, Brown GA, et al. Differences in survival among patients with sarcomatoid carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol. 2007; 178: 23022306; discussion 2307.
  • 85
    Dahm P, Gschwend JE. Malignant non-urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder: a review. Eur Urol. 2003; 44: 672681.
  • 86
    EbleJN, SauterG, EpsteinJI, SesterhennIA. (Eds.): World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs. IARC Press: Lyon 2004.
  • 87
    Nigwekar P, Tamboli P, Amin MB, Osunkoya AO, Ben-Dor D, Amin MB. Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma: detailed analysis of morphology with clinicopathologic correlation in 17 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009; 33: 417424.
  • 88
    Koss LG. Bladder cancer from a perspective of 40 years. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 1992; 16I: 2329.
  • 89
    Wu XR. Urothelial tumorigenesis: a tale of divergent pathways. Nat Rev Cancer. 2005; 5: 713725.
  • 90
    Shariat SF, Chade DC, Karakiewicz PI, et al. Combination of multiple molecular markers can improve prognostication in patients with locally advanced and lymph node positive bladder cancer. J Urol. 2010; 183: 6875.
  • 91
    Shariat SF, Chade DC, Karakiewicz PI, et al. Combination of multiple molecular markers can improve prognostication in patients with locally advanced and lymph node positive bladder cancer. J Urol. 183: 6875.
  • 92
    McNeish IA, Bell SJ, Lemoine NR. Gene therapy progress and prospects: cancer gene therapy using tumour suppressor genes. Gene Ther. 2004; 11: 497503.
  • 93
    Wang S, El-Deiry WS. The p53 pathway: targets for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. Cancer Treat Res. 2004; 119: 175187.
  • 94
    Pagliaro LC, Keyhani A, Williams D, et al. Repeated intravesical instillations of an adenoviral vector in patients with locally advanced bladder cancer: a phase I study of p53 gene therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 22472253.
  • 95
    Ramesh N, Ge Y, Ennist DL, et al. CG0070, a conditionally replicating granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor—armed oncolytic adenovirus for the treatment of bladder cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006; 12: 305313.
  • 96
    Lokeshwar VB, Habuchi T, Grossman HB, et al. Bladder tumor markers beyond cytology: International Consensus Panel on bladder tumor markers. Urology. 2005; 66: 3563.
  • 97
    Nielsen ME, Gonzalgo ML, Schoenberg MP, Getzenberg RH. Toward critical evaluation of the role(s) of molecular biomarkers in the management of bladder cancer. World J Urol. 2006; 24: 499508.
  • 98
    van der Aa MN, Zwarthoff EC, Steyerberg EW, et al. Microsatellite analysis of voided-urine samples for surveillance of low-grade non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma: feasibility and clinical utility in a prospective multicenter study (Cost-Effectiveness of Follow-Up of Urinary Bladder Cancer trial [CEFUB]). Eur Urol. 2009; 55: 659667.
  • 99
    Hoque MO, Lee CC, Cairns P, Schoenberg M, Sidransky D. Genome-wide genetic characterization of bladder cancer: a comparison of high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays and PCR-based microsatellite analysis. Cancer Res. 2003; 63: 22162222.
  • 100
    van Rhijn BW, van der Poel HG, van der Kwast TH. Urine markers for bladder cancer surveillance: a systematic review. Eur Urol. 2005; 47: 736748.
  • 101
    Degtyar P, Neulander E, Zirkin H, et al. Fluorescence in situ hybridization performed on exfoliated urothelial cells in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urology. 2004; 63: 398401.
  • 102
    Park HS, Park WS, Bondaruk J, et al. Quantitation of Aurora kinase A gene copy number in urine sediments and bladder cancer detection. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008; 100: 14011411.
  • 103
    Shirodkar SP, Lokeshwar VB. Potential new urinary markers in the early detection of bladder cancer. Curr Opin Urol. 2009; 19: 488493.
  • 104
    Kawanishi H, Matsui Y, Ito M, et al. Secreted CXCL1 is a potential mediator and marker of the tumor invasion of bladder cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14: 25792587.
  • 105
    Roy R, Louis G, Loughlin KR, et al. Tumor-specific urinary matrix metalloproteinase fingerprinting: identification of high molecular weight urinary matrix metalloproteinase species. Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14: 66106617.
  • 106
    Kim YK, Kim WJ. Epigenetic markers as promising prognosticators for bladder cancer. Int J Urol. 2009; 16: 1722.
  • 107
    Lin HH, Ke HL, Huang SP, Wu WJ, Chen YK, Chang LL. Increase sensitivity in detecting superficial, low grade bladder cancer by combination analysis of hypermethylation of E-cadherin, p16, p14, RASSF1A genes in urine [abstract]. Urol Oncol. [published online ahead of print January 30, 2009]
  • 108
    Botteman MF, Pashos CL, Redaelli A, Laskin B, Hauser R. The health economics of bladder cancer: a comprehensive review of the published literature. Pharmacoeconomics. 2003; 21: 13151330.
  • 109
    Glas AS, Roos D, Deutekom M, Zwinderman AH, Bossuyt PM, Kurth KH. Tumor markers in the diagnosis of primary bladder cancer. A systematic review. J Urol. 2003; 169: 19751982.
  • 110
    Yang CH, Lambie EJ, Snyder M. NuMA: an unusually long coiled-coil related protein in the mammalian nucleus. J Cell Biol. 1992; 116: 13031317.
  • 111
    Grossman HB, Messing E, Soloway M, et al. Detection of bladder cancer using a point-of-care proteomic assay. JAMA. 2005; 293: 810816.
  • 112
    Ponsky LE, Sharma S, Pandrangi L, et al. Screening and monitoring for bladder cancer: refining the use of NMP22. J Urol. 2001; 166: 7578.
  • 113
    Sharma S, Zippe CD, Pandrangi L, Nelson D, Agarwal A. Exclusion criteria enhance the specificity and positive predictive value of NMP22 and BTA stat. J Urol. 1999; 162: 5357.
  • 114
    Oge O, Kozaci D, Gemalmaz H. The BTA stat test is nonspecific for hematuria: an experimental hematuria model. J Urol. 2002; 167: 13181319; discussion 1319–1320.
  • 115
    Nasuti JF, Gomella LG, Ismial M, Bibbo M. Utility of the BTA stat test kit for bladder cancer screening. Diagn Cytopathol. 1999; 21: 2729.
  • 116
    Lokeshwar VB, Schroeder GL, Selzer MG, et al. Bladder tumor markers for monitoring recurrence and screening comparison of hyaluronic acid-hyaluronidase and BTA-Stat tests. Cancer. 2002; 95: 6172.
  • 117
    Van Le TS, Myers J, Konety BR, Barder T, Getzenberg RH. Functional characterization of the bladder cancer marker, BLCA-4. Clin Cancer Res. 2004; 10: 13841391.
  • 118
    Myers-Irvin JM, Landsittel D, Getzenberg RH. Use of the novel marker BLCA-1 for the detection of bladder cancer. J Urol. 2005; 174: 6468.
  • 119
    van Rhijn BW, Lurkin I, Radvanyi F, Kirkels WJ, van der Kwast TH, Zwarthoff EC. The fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutation is a strong indicator of superficial bladder cancer with low recurrence rate. Cancer Res. 2001; 61: 12651268.
  • 120
    Hernandez S, Lopez-Knowles E, Lloreta J, et al. FGFR3 and Tp53 mutations in T1G3 transitional bladder carcinomas: independent distribution and lack of association with prognosis. Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11: 54445450.
  • 121
    van Rhijn BW, Vis AN, van der Kwast TH, et al. Molecular grading of urothelial cell carcinoma with fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 and MIB-1 is superior to pathologic grade for the prediction of clinical outcome. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 19121921.
  • 122
    Knowles MA. Role of FGFR3 in urothelial cell carcinoma: biomarker and potential therapeutic target. World J Urol. 2007; 25: 581593.
  • 123
    Dovedi SJ, Davies BR. Emerging targeted therapies for bladder cancer: a disease waiting for a drug. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2009; 28: 355367.
  • 124
    Porta DG, Molle S, Stamm C, et al. TK1258, a multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor, is efficacious in preclinical models of bladder cancer [abstract]. Abstract 4888. Poster presented at: 99th AACR Annual Meeting; April 12-16, 2008; San Diego, CA. AARC Meeting Abstracts online: CA Accessed January 20, 2010.
  • 125
    Miladi M, Peyromaure M, Zerbib M, Saighi D, Debre B. The value of a second transurethral resection in evaluating patients with bladder tumours. Eur Urol. 2003; 43: 241245.
  • 126
    Babjuk M, Oosterlinck W, Sylvester R, Kaasinen E, Bohle A, Palou-Redorta J. EAU guidelines on non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Eur Urol. 2008; 54: 303314.
  • 127
    Divrik RT, Yildirim U, Zorlu F, Ozen H. The effect of repeat transurethral resection on recurrence and progression rates in patients with T1 tumors of the bladder who received intravesical mitomycin: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. J Urol. 2006; 175: 16411644.
  • 128
    van der Meijden AP, Brausi M, Zambon V, Kirkels W, de Balincourt C, Sylvester R. Intravesical instillation of epirubicin, bacillus Calmette-Guerin and bacillus Calmette-Guerin plus isoniazid for intermediate and high risk Ta, T1 papillary carcinoma of the bladder: a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer genito-urinary group randomized phase III trial. J Urol. 2001; 166: 476481.
  • 129
    Sylvester RJ, Oosterlinck W, van der Meijden AP. A single immediate postoperative instillation of chemotherapy decreases the risk of recurrence in patients with stage Ta T1 bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of published results of randomized clinical trials. J Urol. 2004; 171: 21862190; quiz 2435.
  • 130
    Han RF, Pan JG. Can intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin reduce recurrence in patients with superficial bladder cancer? A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Urology. 2006; 67: 12161223.
  • 131
    van der Meijden PM. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. In: HallRR, ed. Clinical Management of Bladder Cancer. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1999: 125147.
  • 132
    Bohle A, Jocham D, Bock PR. Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin versus mitomycin C for superficial bladder cancer: a formal meta-analysis of comparative studies on recurrence and toxicity. J Urol. 2003; 169: 9095.
  • 133
    Bohle A, Bock PR. Intravesical bacille Calmette-Guerin versus mitomycin C in superficial bladder cancer: formal meta-analysis of comparative studies on tumor progression. Urology. 2004; 63: 682686; discussion 686–687.
  • 134
    Shelley MD, Wilt TJ, Court J, Coles B, Kynaston H, Mason MD. Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin is superior to mitomycin C in reducing tumour recurrence in high-risk superficial bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. BJU Int. 2004; 93: 485490.
  • 135
    Malmstrom PU, Sylvester RJ, Crawford DE, et al. An individual patient data meta-analysis of the long-term outcome of randomised studies comparing intravesical mitomycin C versus bacillus Calmette-Guerin for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Eur Urol. 2009; 56: 247256.
  • 136
    Sylvester RJ, van der Meijden AP, Witjes JA, Kurth K. Bacillus calmette-guerin versus chemotherapy for the intravesical treatment of patients with carcinoma in situ of the bladder: a meta-analysis of the published results of randomized clinical trials. J Urol. 2005; 174: 8691; discussion 91–92.
  • 137
    Joudi FN, Smith BJ, O'Donnell MA. Final results from a national multicenter phase II trial of combination bacillus Calmette-Guerin plus interferon alpha-2B for reducing recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Urol Oncol. 2006; 24: 344348.
  • 138
    Witjes JA. Management of BCG failures in superficial bladder cancer: a review. Eur Urol. 2006; 49: 790797.
  • 139
    O'Donnell MA, Boehle A. Treatment options for BCG failures. World J Urol. 2006; 24: 481487.
  • 140
    Lockyer CR, Sedgwick JE, Gillatt DA. Beware the BCG failures: a review of one institution's results. Eur Urol. 2002; 42: 542546.
  • 141
    Malmstrom PU, Wijkstrom H, Lundholm C, Wester K, Busch C, Norlen BJ. 5-year followup of a randomized prospective study comparing mitomycin C and bacillus Calmette-Guerin in patients with superficial bladder carcinoma. Swedish-Norwegian Bladder Cancer Study Group. J Urol. 1999; 161: 11241127.
  • 142
    Greenberg RE, Bahnson RR, Wood D, et al. Initial report on intravesical administration of N-trifluoroacetyladriamycin-14-valerate (AD 32) to patients with refractory superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Urology. 1997; 49: 471475.
  • 143
    Steinberg G, Bahnson R, Brosman S, Middleton R, Wajsman Z, Wehle M. Efficacy and safety of valrubicin for the treatment of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin refractory carcinoma in situ of the bladder. The Valrubicin Study Group. J Urol. 2000; 163: 761767.
  • 144
    Au JL, Badalament RA, Wientjes MG, et al. Methods to improve efficacy of intravesical mitomycin C: results of a randomized phase III trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001; 93: 597604.
  • 145
    Colombo R, Da Pozzo LF, Salonia A, et al. Multicentric study comparing intravesical chemotherapy alone and with local microwave hyperthermia for prophylaxis of recurrence of superficial transitional cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 42704276.
  • 146
    Gofrit ON, Shapiro A, Pode D, et al. Combined local bladder hyperthermia and intravesical chemotherapy for the treatment of high-grade superficial bladder cancer. Urology. 2004; 63: 466471.
  • 147
    Di Stasi SM, Giannantoni A, Stephen RL, et al. Intravesical electromotive mitomycin C versus passive transport mitomycin C for high risk superficial bladder cancer: a prospective randomized study. J Urol. 2003; 170: 777782.
  • 148
    Waidelich R, Stepp H, Baumgartner R, Weninger E, Hofstetter A, Kriegmair M. Clinical experience with 5-aminolevulinic acid and photodynamic therapy for refractory superficial bladder cancer. J Urol. 2001; 165: 19041907.
  • 149
    McKiernan JM, Masson P, Murphy AM, et al. Phase I trial of intravesical docetaxel in the management of superficial bladder cancer refractory to standard intravesical therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 30753080.
  • 150
    Oosterlinck W, Lobel B, Jakse G, Malmstrom PU, Stockle M, Sternberg C. Guidelines on bladder cancer. Eur Urol. 2002; 41: 105112.
  • 151
    Herr HW, Sogani PC. Does early cystectomy improve the survival of patients with high risk superficial bladder tumors? J Urol. 2001; 166: 12961299.
  • 152
    Huguet J, Crego M, Sabate S, Salvador J, Palou J, Villavicencio H. Cystectomy in patients with high risk superficial bladder tumors who fail intravesical BCG therapy: pre-cystectomy prostate involvement as a prognostic factor. Eur Urol. 2005; 48: 5359; discussion 59.
  • 153
    Dalbagni G, Genega E, Hashibe M, et al. Cystectomy for bladder cancer: a contemporary series. J Urol. 2001; 165: 11111116.
  • 154
    Madersbacher S, Hochreiter W, Burkhard F, et al. Radical cystectomy for bladder cancer today—a homogeneous series without neoadjuvant therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 690696.
  • 155
    Rosario DJ, Becker M, Anderson JB. The changing pattern of mortality and morbidity from radical cystectomy. BJU Int. 2000; 85: 427430.
  • 156
    Knap MM, Lundbeck F, Overgaard J. Early and late treatment-related morbidity following radical cystectomy. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2004; 38: 153160.
  • 157
    Konety BR, Dhawan V, Allareddy V, Joslyn SA. Impact of hospital and surgeon volume on in-hospital mortality from radical cystectomy: data from the health care utilization project. J Urol. 2005; 173: 16951700.
  • 158
    Cookson MS, Chang SS, Wells N, Parekh DJ, Smith JA Jr. Complications of radical cystectomy for nonmuscle invasive disease: comparison with muscle invasive disease. J Urol. 2003; 169: 101104.
  • 159
    Herr HW, Dotan Z, Donat SM, Bajorin DF. Defining optimal therapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer. J Urol. 2007; 177: 437443.
  • 160
    Sanchez-Ortiz RF, Huang WC, Mick R, Van Arsdalen KN, Wein AJ, Malkowicz SB. An interval longer than 12 weeks between the diagnosis of muscle invasion and cystectomy is associated with worse outcome in bladder carcinoma. J Urol. 2003; 169: 110115; discussion 115.
  • 161
    Lee CT, Madii R, Daignault S, et al. Cystectomy delay more than 3 months from initial bladder cancer diagnosis results in decreased disease specific and overall survival. J Urol. 2006; 175: 12621267; discussion 1267.
  • 162
    Elting LS, Pettaway C, Bekele BN, et al. Correlation between annual volume of cystectomy, professional staffing, and outcomes: a statewide, population-based study. Cancer. 2005; 104: 975984.
  • 163
    Herr H, Lee C, Chang S, Lerner S. Standardization of radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection for bladder cancer: a collaborative group report. J Urol. 2004; 171: 18231828; discussion 1827–1828.
  • 164
    Stein JP. Improving outcomes with radical cystectomy for high-grade invasive bladder cancer. World J Urol. 2006; 24: 509516.
  • 165
    Herr HW, Faulkner JR, Grossman HB, et al. Surgical factors influence bladder cancer outcomes: a cooperative group report. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 27812789.
  • 166
    Herr HW, Bochner BH, Dalbagni G, Donat SM, Reuter VE, Bajorin DF. Impact of the number of lymph nodes retrieved on outcome in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer. J Urol. 2002; 167: 12951298.
  • 167
    Leissner J, Hohenfellner R, Thuroff JW, Wolf HK. Lymphadenectomy in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder; significance for staging and prognosis. BJU Int. 2000; 85: 817823.
  • 168
    Konety BR, Joslyn SA, O'Donnell MA. Extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy and its impact on outcome in patients diagnosed with bladder cancer: analysis of data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program data base. J Urol. 2003; 169: 946950.
  • 169
    Poulsen AL, Horn T, Steven K. Radical cystectomy: extending the limits of pelvic lymph node dissection improves survival for patients with bladder cancer confined to the bladder wall. J Urol. 1998; 160: 20152019; discussion 2020.
  • 170
    Herr HW, Donat SM. Outcome of patients with grossly node positive bladder cancer after pelvic lymph node dissection and radical cystectomy. J Urol. 2001; 165: 6264; discussion 64.
  • 171
    Koppie TM, Vickers AJ, Vora K, Dalbagni G, Bochner BH. Standardization of pelvic lymphadenectomy performed at radical cystectomy: can we establish a minimum number of lymph nodes that should be removed? Cancer. 2006; 107: 23682374.
  • 172
    Stein JP, Cai J, Groshen S, Skinner DG. Risk factors for patients with pelvic lymph node metastases following radical cystectomy with en bloc pelvic lymphadenectomy: concept of lymph node density. J Urol. 2003; 170: 3541.
  • 173
    Osawa T, Abe T, Shinohara N, et al. Role of lymph node density in predicting survival of patients with lymph node metastases after radical cystectomy: a multi-institutional study. Int J Urol. 2009; 16: 274278; discussion 278.
  • 174
    Hemal AK, Abol-Enein H, Tewari A, et al. Robotic radical cystectomy and urinary diversion in the management of bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am. 2004; 31: 719729, viii.
  • 175
    Hemal AK. Robotic and laparoscopic radical cystectomy in the management of bladder cancer. Curr Urol Rep. 2009; 10: 4554.
  • 176
    Guru KA, Kim HL, Piacente PM, Mohler JL. Robot-assisted radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection: initial experience at Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Urology. 2007; 69: 469474.
  • 177
    Haber GP, Crouzet S, Gill IS. Laparoscopic and robotic assisted radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: a critical analysis. Eur Urol. 2008; 54: 5462.
  • 178
    Pruthi RS, Wallen EM. Is robotic radical cystectomy an appropriate treatment for bladder cancer? Short-term oncologic and clinical follow-up in 50 consecutive patients. Urology. 2008; 72: 617620; discussion 620–612.
  • 179
    Hautmann RE, Abol-Enein H, Hafez K, et al. Urinary diversion. Urology. 2007; 69: 1749.
  • 180
    Hautmann RE, de Petriconi R, Gottfried HW, Kleinschmidt K, Mattes R, Paiss T. The ileal neobladder: complications and functional results in 363 patients after 11 years of followup. J Urol. 1999; 161: 422427; discussion 427–428.
  • 181
    Montie JE, Wei JT. Formation of an orthotopic neobladder following radical cystectomy: historical perspective, patient selection, and contemporary outcomes. J Pelvic Surg. 2002; 8: 141147.
  • 182
    Stein JP, Skinner DG. Application of the T-mechanism to an orthotopic (T-pouch) neobladder: a new era of urinary diversion. World J Urol. 2000; 18: 315323.
  • 183
    Studer UE, Zingg EJ. Ileal orthotopic bladder substitutes. What we have learned from 12 years' experience with 200 patients. Urol Clin North Am. 1997; 24: 781793.
  • 184
    Hautmann RE, Paiss T. Does the option of the ileal neobladder stimulate patient and physician decision toward earlier cystectomy? J Urol. 1998; 159: 18451850.
  • 185
    Skinner DG, Studer UE, Okada K, et al. Which patients are suitable for continent diversion or bladder substitution following cystectomy or other definitive local treatment? Int J Urol. 1995; 2( suppl 2): 105112.
  • 186
    Studer UE, Hautmann RE, Hohenfellner M, et al. Indications for continent diversion after cystectomy and factors affecting long-term results. Urol Oncol. 1998; 4: 172182.
  • 187
    Sherif A, Rintala E, Mestad O, et al. Neoadjuvant cisplatin-methotrexate chemotherapy for invasive bladder cancer—Nordic cystectomy trial 2. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2002; 36: 419425.
  • 188
    Sherif A, Holmberg L, Rintala E, et al. Neoadjuvant cisplatinum based combination chemotherapy in patients with invasive bladder cancer: a combined analysis of two Nordic studies. Eur Urol. 2004; 45: 297303.
  • 189
    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in invasive bladder cancer: update of a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data advanced bladder cancer (ABC) meta-analysis collaboration. Eur Urol. 2005; 48: 202205; discussion 205–206.
  • 190
    Winquist E, Kirchner TS, Segal R, Chin J, Lukka H. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Urol. 2004; 171: 561569.
  • 191
    Millikan R, Dinney C, Swanson D, et al. Integrated therapy for locally advanced bladder cancer: final report of a randomized trial of cystectomy plus adjuvant M-VAC versus cystectomy with both preoperative and postoperative M-VAC. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 40054013.
  • 192
    Neoadjuvant cisplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a randomised controlled trial. International collaboration of trialists. Lancet. 1999; 354: 533540.
  • 193
    David KA, Milowsky MI, Ritchey J, Carroll PR, Nanus DM. Low incidence of perioperative chemotherapy for stage III bladder cancer 1998 to 2003: a report from the National Cancer Data Base. J Urol. 2007; 178: 451454.
  • 194
    Adjuvant chemotherapy in invasive bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data Advanced Bladder Cancer (ABC) Meta-analysis Collaboration. Eur Urol. 2005; 48: 189199; discussion 199–201.
  • 195
    Sonpavde G, Petrylak DP. Perioperative chemotherapy for bladder cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2006; 57: 133144.
  • 196
    Donat SM, Shabsigh A, Savage C, et al. Potential impact of postoperative early complications on the timing of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients undergoing radical cystectomy: a high-volume tertiary cancer center experience. Eur Urol. 2009; 55: 177185.
  • 197
    Loehrer PJ Sr, Einhorn LH, Elson PJ, et al. A randomized comparison of cisplatin alone or in combination with methotrexate, vinblastine, and doxorubicin in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a cooperative group study. J Clin Oncol. 1992; 10: 10661073.
  • 198
    Sternberg CN, Yagoda A, Scher HI, et al. Methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin for advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. Efficacy and patterns of response and relapse. Cancer. 1989; 64: 24482458.
  • 199
    Saxman SB, Propert KJ, Einhorn LH, et al. Long-term follow-up of a phase III intergroup study of cisplatin alone or in combination with methotrexate, vinblastine, and doxorubicin in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a cooperative group study. J Clin Oncol. 1997; 15: 25642569.
  • 200
    von der Maase H, Hansen SW, Roberts JT, et al. Gemcitabine and cisplatin versus methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in advanced or metastatic bladder cancer: results of a large, randomized, multinational, multicenter, phase III study. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 30683077.
  • 201
    Roberts JT, von der Maase H, Sengelov L, et al. Long-term survival results of a randomized trial comparing gemcitabine/cisplatin and methotrexate/vinblastine/doxorubicin/cisplatin in patients with locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer. Ann Oncol. 2006; 17( suppl 5): v118v122.
  • 202
    Sternberg CN, de Mulder PH, Schornagel JH, et al. Randomized phase III trial of igh-dose-intensity methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC) chemotherapy and recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor versus classic MVAC in advanced urothelial tract tumors: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Protocol no. 30924. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 26382646.
  • 203
    Fuchs DA, Johnson RK. Cytologic evidence that taxol, an antineoplastic agent from Taxus brevifolia, acts as a mitotic spindle poison. Cancer Treat Rep. 1978; 62: 12191222.
  • 204
    Roth BJ, Dreicer R, Einhorn LH, et al. Significant activity of paclitaxel in advanced transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelium: a phase II trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 1994; 12: 22642270.
  • 205
    Bellmunt J, Guillem V, Paz-Ares L, et al. Phase I-II study of paclitaxel, cisplatin, and gemcitabine in advanced transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelium. Spanish Oncology Genitourinary Group. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 32473255.
  • 206
    Meluch AA, Greco FA, Burris HA 3rd, et al. Paclitaxel and gemcitabine chemotherapy for advanced transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelial tract: a phase II trial of the Minnie pearl cancer research network. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 30183024.
  • 207
    Hussain M, Vaishampayan U, Du W, Redman B, Smith DC. Combination paclitaxel, carboplatin, and gemcitabine is an active treatment for advanced urothelial cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 25272533.
  • 208
    Gallagher DJ, Milowsky MI, Bajorin DF. Advanced bladder cancer: status of first-line chemotherapy and the search for active agents in the second-line setting. Cancer. 2008; 113: 12841293.
  • 209
    Varol C, Thalmann GN, Burkhard FC, Studer UE. Treatment of urethral recurrence following radical cystectomy and ileal bladder substitution. J Urol. 2004; 172: 937942.
  • 210
    Sternberg CN, Pansadoro V, Calabro F, et al. Can patient selection for bladder preservation be based on response to chemotherapy? Cancer. 2003; 97: 16441652.
  • 211
    Solsona E, Iborra I, Ricos JV, Monros JL, Casanova J, Calabuig C. Feasibility of transurethral resection for muscle infiltrating carcinoma of the bladder: long-term followup of a prospective study. J Urol. 1998; 159: 9598; discussion 98–99.
  • 212
    Choueiri TK, Raghavan D. Chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy: persisting uncertainties. Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2008; 5: 444454.
  • 213
    Raghavan D. Pre-emptive (neo-adjuvant) intravenous chemotherapy for invasive bladder cancer. Br J Urol. 1988; 61: 18.
  • 214
    Feneley MR, Schoenberg M. Bladder-sparing strategies for transitional cell carcinoma. Urology. 2000; 56: 549560.
  • 215
    Shipley WU, Kaufman DS, Tester WJ, Pilepich MV, Sandler HM. Overview of bladder cancer trials in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Cancer. 2003; 97: 21152119.
  • 216
    Zietman AL, Grocela J, Zehr E, et al. Selective bladder conservation using transurethral resection, chemotherapy, and radiation: management and consequences of Ta, T1, and Tis recurrence within the retained bladder. Urology. 2001; 58: 380385.
  • 217
    Kassouf W, Swanson D, Kamat AM, et al. Partial cystectomy for muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a contemporary review of the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. J Urol. 2006; 175: 20582062.
  • 218
    Laufer M. Transurethral resection and partial cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer. Semin Urol Oncol. 2000; 18: 296299.
  • 219
    Herr HW, Bajorin DF, Scher HI. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and bladder-sparing surgery for invasive bladder cancer: ten-year outcome. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16: 12981301.
  • 220
    Holzbeierlein JM, Lopez-Corona E, Bochner BH, et al. Partial cystectomy: a contemporary review of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience and recommendations for patient selection. J Urol. 2004; 172: 878881.
  • 221
    Calabro F, Sternberg CN. State-of-the-art management of metastatic disease at initial presentation or recurrence. World J Urol. 2006; 24: 543556.
  • 222
    Geller NL, Sternberg CN, Penenberg D, Scher H, Yagoda A. Prognostic factors for survival of patients with advanced urothelial tumors treated with methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin chemotherapy. Cancer. 1991; 67: 15251531.
  • 223
    Bellmunt J, de Wit R, Albanell J, Baselga J. A feasibility study of carboplatin with fixed dose of gemcitabine in “unfit” patients with advanced bladder cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2001; 37: 22122215.
  • 224
    Bamias A, Aravantinos G, Deliveliotis C, et al. Docetaxel and cisplatin with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) versus MVAC with G-CSF in advanced urothelial carcinoma: a multicenter, randomized, phase III study from the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 220228.
  • 225
    Hahn NM, Stadler WM, Zon RT, et al. A multicenter phase II study of cisplatin (C), gemcitabine (G), and bevacizumab (B) as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC): Hoosier Oncology Group GU-0475 [abstract]. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27( suppl): 15s. Abstract 5018.
  • 226
    Hussain MH, MacVicar GR, Petrylak DP, et al. Trastuzumab, paclitaxel, carboplatin, and gemcitabine in advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor-2/neu-positive urothelial carcinoma: results of a multicenter phase II National Cancer Institute trial. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25: 22182224.
  • 227
    Herr HW, Donat SM, Bajorin DF. Post-chemotherapy surgery in patients with unresectable or regionally metastatic bladder cancer. J Urol. 2001; 165: 811814.
  • 228
    Petrovich Z, Jozsef G, Brady LW. Radiotherapy for carcinoma of the bladder: a review. Am J Clin Oncol. 2001; 24: 19.
  • 229
    Huang GJ, Hamilton AS, Lo M, Stein JP, Penson DF. Predictors of intravesical therapy for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: results from the surveillance, epidemiology and end results program 2003 patterns of care project. J Urol. 2008; 180: 520524; discussion 524.
  • 230
    Brauers A, Buettner R, Jakse G. Second resection and prognosis of primary high risk superficial bladder cancer: is cystectomy often too early? J Urol. 2001; 165: 808810.
  • 231
    Grimm MO, Steinhoff C, Simon X, Spiegelhalder P, Ackermann R, Vogeli TA. Effect of routine repeat transurethral resection for superficial bladder cancer: a long-term observational study. J Urol. 2003; 170: 433437.
  • 232
    Morris DS, Weizer AZ, Ye Z, Dunn RL, Montie JE, Hollenbeck BK. Understanding bladder cancer death: tumor biology versus physician practice. Cancer. 2009; 115: 10111020.