• 1
    Oberndorfer S. Karzinoide Tumoren des Dunndarms. Frankf Z Pathol. 1907; 1: 426-432.
  • 2
    Klimstra DS, Modlin IR, Coppola D, Lloyd RV, Suster S. The pathologic classification of neuroendocrine tumors: a review of nomenclature, grading, and staging systems. Pancreas. 2010; 39: 707-712.
  • 3
    BosmanF, CarneiroF, HrubanR, TheiseN, eds. WHO Classification of Tumors of the Digestive System. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2010.
  • 4
    Rindi G, Bordi C. Classification of neuroendocrine tumours. In: CaplinM, KvolsL, eds. Handbook of Neuroendocrine Tumors. Bristol, UK: BioScientifica; 2006: 37-43.
  • 5
    Rindi G, Kloppel G, Alhman H, et al. TNM staging of foregut (neuro)endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system. Virchows Arch. 2006; 449: 395-401.
  • 6
    Rindi G, Kloppel G, Couvelard A, et al. TNM staging of midgut and hindgut (neuro) endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system. Virchows Arch. 2007; 451: 757-762.
  • 7
    Hochwald SN, Zee S, Conlon KC, et al. Prognostic factors in pancreatic endocrine neoplasms: an analysis of 136 cases with a proposal for low-grade and intermediate-grade groups. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 2633-2642.
  • 8
    Scarpa A, Mantovani W, Capelli P, et al. Pancreatic endocrine tumors: improved TNM staging and histopathological grading permit a clinically efficient prognostic stratification of patients. Mod Pathol. 2010; 23: 824-833.
  • 9
    Berge T, Linell F. Carcinoid tumours. Frequency in a defined population during a 12-year period. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand A. 1976; 84: 322-330.
  • 10
    Westergaard T, Frisch M, Melbye M. Carcinoid tumors in Denmark 1978-1989 and the risk of subsequent cancers. A population-based study. Cancer. 1995; 76: 106-109.
  • 11
    Hemminki K, Li X. Incidence trends and risk factors of carcinoid tumors: a nationwide epidemiologic study from Sweden. Cancer. 2001; 92: 2204-2210.
  • 12
    Newton JN, Swerdlow AJ, dos Santos Silva IM, et al. The epidemiology of carcinoid tumours in England and Scotland. Br J Cancer. 1994; 70: 939-942.
  • 13
    Crocetti E, Buiatti E, Amorosi A. Epidemiology of carcinoid tumours in central Italy. Eur J Epidemiol. 1997; 13: 357-359.
  • 14
    Yao JC, Hassan M, Phan A, et al. One hundred years after “carcinoid”: epidemiology of and prognostic factors for neuroendocrine tumors in 35,825 cases in the United States. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 3063-3072.
  • 15
    Garcia-Carbonero R, Capdevila J, Crespo-Herrero G, et al. Incidence, patterns of care and prognostic factors for outcome of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs): results from the National Cancer Registry of Spain (RGETNE). Ann Oncol. 2010; 21: 1794-1803.
  • 16
    Modlin I, Zikusoka M, Kidd M, Latich I, Eick G, Romanyshyn J. The history and epidemiology of neuroendocrine tumors. In: CaplinM, KvolsL, eds. Handbook of Neuroendocrine Tumors. 1st ed. Bristol, UK: BioScientifica; 2006: 7-37.
  • 17
    Pearse AG. The cytochemistry and ultrastructure of polypeptide hormone-producing cells of the APUD series and the embryologic, physiologic and pathologic implications of the concept. J Histochem Cytochem. 1969; 17: 303-313.
  • 18
    Pictet RL, Rall LB, Phelps P, Rutter WJ. The neural crest and the origin of the insulin-producing and other gastrointestinal hormone-producing cells. Science. 1976; 191: 191-192.
  • 19
    Wiedenmann B, John M, Ahnert-Hilger G, Riecken EO. Molecular and cell biological aspects of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastroenteropancreatic system. J Mol Med. 1998; 76: 637-647.
  • 20
    Modlin IM, Oberg K, Chung DC, et al. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Lancet Oncol. 2008; 9: 61-72.
  • 21
    Starker L, Carling T. Molecular genetics of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Curr Opin Oncol. 2008; 21: 29-33.
  • 22
    Leotlela PD, Jauch A, Holtgreve-Grez H, Thakker RV. Genetics of neuroendocrine and carcinoid tumours. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2003; 10: 437-450.
  • 23
    Tonnies H, Toliat MR, Ramel C, et al. Analysis of sporadic neuroendocrine tumours of the enteropancreatic system by comparative genomic hybridisation. Gut. 2001; 48: 536-541.
  • 24
    Perren A, Anlauf M, Henopp T, et al. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1): loss of one MEN1 allele in tumors and monohormonal endocrine cell clusters but not in islet hyperplasia of the pancreas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92: 1118-1128.
  • 25
    Corcos O, Couvelard A, Giraud S, et al. Endocrine pancreatic tumors in von Hippel-Lindau disease: clinical, histological, and genetic features. Pancreas. 2008; 37: 85-93.
  • 26
    Lott ST, Chandler DS, Curley SA, et al. High frequency loss of heterozygosity in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-associated and sporadic pancreatic islet cell tumors: evidence for a stepwise mechanism for malignant conversion in VHL tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2002; 62: 1952-1955.
  • 27
    Rachdi L, Balcazar N, Osorio-Duque F, et al. Disruption of Tsc2 in pancreatic beta cells induces beta cell mass expansion and improved glucose tolerance in a TORC1-dependent manner. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008; 105: 9250-9255.
  • 28
    Lollgen RM, Hessman O, Szabo E, Westin G, Akerstrom G. Chromosome 18 deletions are common events in classical midgut carcinoid tumors. Int J Cancer. 2001; 92: 812-815.
  • 29
    Lindberg D, Akerstrom G, Westin G. Mutational analyses of WNT7A and HDAC11 as candidate tumour suppressor genes in sporadic malignant pancreatic endocrine tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007; 66: 110-114.
  • 30
    Wang EH, Ebrahimi SA, Wu AY, Kashefi C, Passaro E Jr, Sawicki MP. Mutation of the MENIN gene in sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Cancer Res. 1998; 58: 4417-4420.
  • 31
    Zhuang Z, Vortmeyer AO, Pack S, et al. Somatic mutations of the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene in sporadic gastrinomas and insulinomas. Cancer Res. 1997; 57: 4682-4686.
  • 32
    Duerr EM, Mizukami Y, Ng A, et al. Defining molecular classifications and targets in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors through DNA microarray analysis. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2008; 15: 243-256.
  • 33
    Kaltsas GA, Besser GM, Grossman AB. The diagnosis and medical management of advanced neuroendocrine tumors. Endocr Rev. 2004; 25: 458-511.
  • 34
    Modlin IM, Kidd M, Latich I, Zikusoka MN, Shapiro MD. Current status of gastrointestinal carcinoids. Gastroenterology. 2005; 128: 1717-1751.
  • 35
    Kulke MH, Mayer RJ. Carcinoid tumors. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340: 858-868.
  • 36
    Gustafsson BI, Kidd M, Modlin IM. Neuroendocrine tumors of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. Curr Opin Oncol. 2008; 20: 1-12.
  • 37
    Kaltsas G, Grossman A. Clinical features of gastroenteropancreatic tumors. In: CaplinM, KvolsL, eds. Handbook of Neuroendocrine Tumors. 1st ed. Bristol, UK: BioScientifica; 2006: 83-101.
  • 38
    Eriksson B, Oberg K, Stridsberg M. Tumor markers in neuroendocrine tumors. Digestion. 2000; 62( suppl 1): 33-38.
  • 39
    Norton JA, Alexander HR, Fraker DL, Venzon DJ, Gibril F, Jensen RT. Possible primary lymph node gastrinoma: occurrence, natural history, and predictive factors: a prospective study. Ann Surg. 2003; 237: 650-657; discussion 657-659.
  • 40
    Zatelli MC, Torta M, Leon A, et al. Chromogranin A as a marker of neuroendocrine neoplasia: an Italian Multicenter Study. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007; 14: 473-482.
  • 41
    Saqi A, Alexis D, Remotti F, Bhagat G. Usefulness of CDX2 and TTF-1 in differentiating gastrointestinal from pulmonary carcinoids. Am J Clin Pathol. 2005; 123: 394-404.
  • 42
    DeLellisR, LloydRV, HeitzPU, EngC, eds. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Endocrine Organs. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2004.
  • 43
    Klimstra DS, Modlin IR, Adsay NV, et al. Pathology reporting of neuroendocrine tumors: application of the Delphic consensus process to the development of a minimum pathology data set. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010; 34: 300-313.
  • 44
    Anderson MA, Carpenter S, Thompson NW, Nostrant TT, Elta GH, Scheiman JM. Endoscopic ultrasound is highly accurate and directs management in patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000; 95: 2271-2277.
    Direct Link:
  • 45
    Mason T, Berber E, Graybill JC, Siperstein A. Histological, CT, and intraoperative ultrasound appearance of hepatic tumors previously treated by laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation. J Gastrointest Surg. 2007; 11: 1333-1338.
  • 46
    Norton JA. Intra-operative procedures to localize endocrine tumours of the pancreas and duodenum. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999; 31( suppl 2): S195-S197.
  • 47
    Falconi M, Bettini R, Boninsegna L, Crippa S, Butturini G, Pederzoli P. Surgical strategy in the treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. JOP. 2006; 7: 150-156.
  • 48
    Oberg K. Diagnostic pathways. In: CaplinM, KvolsL, eds. Handbook of Neuroendocrine Tumors. 1st ed. Bristol, UK: BioScientifica; 2006: 101-121.
  • 49
    Mintorovitch J, Shamsi K. Eovist Injection and Resovist Injection: two new liver-specific contrast agents for MRI. Oncology (Williston Park). 2000; 14( 6 suppl 3): 37-40.
  • 50
    Hyslop WB, Balci NC, Semelka RC. Future horizons in MR imaging. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2005; 13: 211-224.
  • 51
    Funovics MA, Kapeller B, Hoeller C, et al. MR imaging of the her2/neu and 9.2.27 tumor antigens using immunospecific contrast agents. Magn Reson Imaging. 2004; 22: 843-850.
  • 52
    Thorek DL, Chen AK, Czupryna J, Tsourkas A. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle probes for molecular imaging. Ann Biomed Eng. 2006; 34: 23-38.
  • 53
    Gibril F, Jensen RT. Diagnostic uses of radiolabelled somatostatin receptor analogues in gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumours. Dig Liver Dis. 2004; 36( suppl 1): S106-S120.
  • 54
    Gibril F, Reynolds JC, Doppman JL, et al. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy: its sensitivity compared with that of other imaging methods in detecting primary and metastatic gastrinomas. A prospective study. Ann Intern Med. 1996; 125: 26-34.
  • 55
    Adams S, Baum R, Rink T, Schumm-Drager PM, Usadel KH, Hor G. Limited value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the imaging of neuroendocrine tumours. Eur J Nucl Med. 1998; 25: 79-83.
  • 56
    Montravers F, Grahek D, Kerrou K, et al. Can fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine PET replace somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in patients with digestive endocrine tumors? J Nucl Med. 2006; 47: 1455-1462.
  • 57
    Orlefors H, Sundin A, Garske U, et al. Whole-body (11)C-5-hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography as a universal imaging technique for neuroendocrine tumors: comparison with somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and computed tomography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 90: 3392-3400.
  • 58
    Hodul PJ, Strosberg JR, Kvols LK. Aggressive surgical resection in the management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: when is it indicated? Cancer Control. 2008; 15: 314-321.
  • 59
    Hodul P, Malafa M, Choi J, Kvols L. The role of cytoreductive hepatic surgery as an adjunct to the management of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinomas. Cancer Control. 2006; 13: 61-71.
  • 60
    Jensen EH, Kvols L, McLoughlin JM, et al. Biomarkers predict outcomes following cytoreductive surgery for hepatic metastases from functional carcinoid tumors. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007; 14: 780-785.
  • 61
    McEntee GP, Nagorney DM, Kvols LK, Moertel CG, Grant CS. Cytoreductive hepatic surgery for neuroendocrine tumors. Surgery. 1990; 108: 1091-1096.
  • 62
    Osborne DA, Zervos EE, Strosberg J, et al. Improved outcome with cytoreduction versus embolization for symptomatic hepatic metastases of carcinoid and neuroendocrine tumors. Ann Surg Oncol. 2006; 13: 572-581.
  • 63
    Bilimoria KY, Talamonti MS, Tomlinson JS, et al. Prognostic score predicting survival after resection of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: analysis of 3851 patients. Ann Surg. 2008; 247: 490-500.
  • 64
    Phan GQ, Yeo CJ, Hruban RH, Littemoe KD, Pitt HA, Cameron JL. Surgical experience with pancreatic and peripancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: Review of 125 patients. J Gastrointest Surg. 1998; 2: 473-482.
  • 65
    Bloomston M, Muscarella P, Shah MH, et al. Cytoreduction results in high perioperative mortality and decreased survival in patients undergoing pancreatectomy for neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. J Gastrointest Surg. 2006; 10: 1361-1370.
  • 66
    Schurr PG, Strate T, Rese K, et al. Aggressive surgery improves long-term survival in neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors: an institutional experience. Ann Surg. 2007; 245: 273-281.
  • 67
    Norton JA. Surgical management of neuroendocrine tumors: pancreas and intestine. In: CaplinM, KvolsL, eds. Handbook of Neuroendocrine Tumors. 1st ed. Bristol, UK: BioScientifica; 2006: 157-177.
  • 68
    Benjegard SA, Forssell-Aronsson E, Wangberg B, Skanberg J, Nilsson O, Ahlman H. Intraoperative tumour detection using 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide and a scintillation detector. Eur J Nucl Med. 2001; 28: 1456-1462.
  • 69
    Cherukuri P, Glazer ES, Curley SA. Targeted hyperthermia using metal nanoparticles. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2010; 62: 339-345.
  • 70
    Gillams A, Cassoni A, Conway G, Lees W. Radiofrequency ablation of neuroendocrine liver metastases: the Middlesex experience. Abdom Imaging. 2005; 30: 435-441.
  • 71
    Ruers TJ, de Jong KP, Ijzermans JN. Radiofrequency for the treatment of liver tumours. Dig Surg. 2005; 22: 245-253.
  • 72
    Kimsey T, Fong Y. Surgical treatment for hepatic metastases from neuroendocrine tumors. In: ModlinI, ObergK, eds. A Century of Advances in Neuroendocrine Biology and Treatment. No. 1. Hannover, Germany: Felsenstein CCCP; 2007.
  • 73
    National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Neuroendocrine Tumors v2.2010. Fort Washington, PA: National Comprehensive Cancer Network; 2010. Available at: http: // gls/PDF/neuroendocrine.pdf. Accessed August 10, 2010.
  • 74
    Stoeltzing O, Loss M, Huber E, et al. Staged surgery with neoadjuvant 90Y-DOTATOC therapy for down-sizing synchronous bilobular hepatic metastases from a neuroendocrine pancreatic tumor. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2010; 395: 185-192.
  • 75
    Castaldo ET, Pinson CW. Liver transplantation for non-hepatocellular carcinoma malignancy. HPB (Oxford). 2007; 9: 98-103.
  • 76
    Lang H, Oldhafer KJ, Weimann A, et al. Liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. Ann Surg. 1997; 225: 347-354.
  • 77
    Hoti E, Adam R. Liver transplantation for primary and metastatic liver cancers. Transpl Int. 2008; 21: 1107-1117.
  • 78
    Venook AP. Embolization and chemoembolization therapy for neuroendocrine tumors. Curr Opin Oncol. 1999; 11: 38-41.
  • 79
    Proye C. Natural history of liver metastasis of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: place for chemoembolization. World J Surg. 2001; 25: 685-688.
  • 80
    Strosberg JR, Nasir A, Hodul PJ, Kvols LK. Biology and treatment of metastatic gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. Gastrointest Cancer Res. 2008; 2: 113-125.
  • 81
    Ruszniewski P Interventional radiology: less invasive or less effective? In: ModlinI, ObergK, eds. A Century of Advances in Neuroendocrine Tumor Biology and Treatment. No. 1. Hanover, Germany: Felsenstein CCCP; 2007.
  • 82
    Kvols LK, Turaga KK, Strosberg J, Choi J. Role of interventional radiology in the treatment of patients with neuroendocrine metastases in the liver. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2009; 7: 765-772.
  • 83
    Dominguez S, Denys A, Madeira I, et al. Hepatic arterial chemoembolization with streptozotocin in patients with metastatic digestive endocrine tumours. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000; 12: 151-157.
  • 84
    Casadei R, Tomassetti P, Rossi C, la Donna M, Migliori M, Marrano D. Treatment of metastatic glucagonoma to the liver: case report and literature review. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999; 31: 308-312.
  • 85
    Lee SM, Forbes A, Williams R. Metastatic islet cell tumour with clinical manifestations of insulin and glucagon excess: successful treatment by hepatic artery embolization and chemotherapy. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1988; 14: 265-268.
  • 86
    Ruszniewski P, Rougier P, Roche A, et al. Hepatic arterial chemoembolization in patients with liver metastases of endocrine tumors. A prospective phase II study in 24 patients. Cancer. 1993; 71: 2624-2630.
  • 87
    Therasse E, Breittmayer F, Roche A, et al. Transcatheter chemoembolization of progressive carcinoid liver metastasis. Radiology. 1993; 189: 541-547.
  • 88
    Roche A, Girish BV, de Baere T, et al. Trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization as first-line treatment for hepatic metastases from endocrine tumors. Eur Radiol. 2003; 13: 136-140.
  • 89
    Diaco DS, Hajarizadeh H, Mueller CR, Fletcher WS, Pommier RF, Woltering EA. Treatment of metastatic carcinoid tumors using multimodality therapy of octreotide acetate, intra-arterial chemotherapy, and hepatic arterial chemoembolization. Am J Surg. 1995; 169: 523-528.
  • 90
    Clouse ME, Perry L, Stuart K, Stokes KR. Hepatic arterial chemoembolization for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. Digestion. 1994; 55( suppl 3): 92-97.
  • 91
    Gupta S, Yao JC, Ahrar K, et al. Hepatic artery embolization and chemoembolization for treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors: the M.D. Anderson experience. Cancer J. 2003; 9: 261-267.
  • 92
    Desai DC, O'Dorisio TM, Schirmer WJ, et al. Serum pancreastatin levels predict response to hepatic artery chemoembolization and somatostatin analogue therapy in metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. Regul Pept. 2001; 96: 113-117.
  • 93
    Kress O, Wagner HJ, Wied M, Klose KJ, Arnold R, Alfke H. Transarterial chemoembolization of advanced liver metastases of neuroendocrine tumors–a retrospective single-center analysis. Digestion. 2003; 68: 94-101.
  • 94
    Fiorentini G, Rossi S, Bonechi F, et al. Intra-arterial hepatic chemoembolization in liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors: a phase II study. J Chemother. 2004; 16: 293-297.
  • 95
    Marrache F, Vullierme MP, Roy C, et al. Arterial phase enhancement and body mass index are predictors of response to chemoembolisation for liver metastases of endocrine tumours. Br J Cancer. 2007; 96: 49-55.
  • 96
    Artinyan A, Nelson R, Soriano P, et al. Treatment response to transcatheter arterial embolization and chemoembolization in primary and metastatic tumors of the liver. HPB (Oxford). 2008; 10: 396-404.
  • 97
    Loewe C, Schindl M, Cejna M, Niederle B, Lammer J, Thurnher S. Permanent transarterial embolization of neuroendocrine metastases of the liver using cyanoacrylate and lipiodol: assessment of mid- and long-term results. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003; 180: 1379-1384.
  • 98
    Ho AS, Picus J, Darcy MD, et al. Long-term outcome after chemoembolization and embolization of hepatic metastatic lesions from neuroendocrine tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007; 188: 1201-1207.
  • 99
    Ruutiainen AT, Soulen MC, Tuite CM, et al. Chemoembolization and bland embolization of neuroendocrine tumor metastases to the liver. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2007; 18: 847-855.
  • 100
    Christante D, Pommier S, Givi B, Pommier R. Hepatic artery chemoinfusion with chemoembolization for neuroendocrine cancer with progressive hepatic metastases despite octreotide therapy. Surgery. 2008; 144: 885- 893; discussion 893-884.
  • 101
    McStay MK, Maudgil D, Williams M, et al. Large-volume liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors: hepatic intraarterial 90Y-DOTA-lanreotide as effective palliative therapy. Radiology. 2005; 237: 718-726.
  • 102
    King J, Quinn R, Glenn DM, et al. Radioembolization with selective internal radiation microspheres for neuroendocrine liver metastases. Cancer. 2008; 113: 921-929.
  • 103
    Kennedy AS, Dezarn WA, McNeillie P, et al. Radioembolization for unresectable neuroendocrine hepatic metastases using resin 90Y-microspheres: early results in 148 patients. Am J Clin Oncol. 2008; 31: 271-279.
  • 104
    Murthy R, Kamat P, Nunez R, et al. Yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolotherapy of hepatic metastatic neuroendocrine carcinomas after hepatic arterial embolization. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2008; 19: 145-151.
  • 105
    Strosberg JR, Choi J, Cantor AB, Kvols LK. Selective hepatic artery embolization for treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoid and pancreatic endocrine tumors. Cancer Control. 2006; 13: 72-78.
  • 106
    Shafir M, Shapiro R, Sung M, Warner R, Sicular A, Klipfel A. Cryoablation of unresectable malignant liver tumors. Am J Surg. 1996; 171: 27-31.
  • 107
    Cozzi PJ, Englund R, Morris DL. Cryotherapy treatment of patients with hepatic metastases from neuroendocrine tumors. Cancer. 1995; 76: 501-509.
  • 108
    Sheen AJ, Poston GJ, Sherlock DJ. Cryotherapeutic ablation of liver tumours. Br J Surg. 2002; 89: 1396-1401.
  • 109
    Duperier T, Ali A, Pereira S, Davies RJ, Ballantyne GH. Laparoscopic cryoablation of a metastatic carcinoid tumor. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2001; 11: 105-109.
  • 110
    Shapiro RS, Shafir M, Sung M, Warner R, Glajchen N. Cryotherapy of metastatic carcinoid tumors. Abdom Imaging. 1998; 23: 314-317.
  • 111
    Vogl TJ, Naguib NN, Zangos S, Eichler K, Hedayati A, Nour-Eldin NE. Liver metastases of neuroendocrine carcinomas: interventional treatment via transarterial embolization, chemoembolization and thermal ablation. Eur J Radiol. 2009; 72: 517-528.
  • 112
    Kvols LK, Martin JK, Marsh HM, Moertel CG. Rapid reversal of carcinoid crisis with a somatostatin analogue. N Engl J Med. 1985; 313: 1229-1230.
  • 113
    Kvols LK, Moertel CG, O'Connell MJ, Schutt AJ, Rubin J, Hahn RG. Treatment of the malignant carcinoid syndrome. Evaluation of a long-acting somatostatin analogue. N Engl J Med. 1986; 315: 663-666.
  • 114
    O'Toole D, Ducreux M, Bommelaer G, et al. Treatment of carcinoid syndrome: a prospective crossover evaluation of lanreotide versus octreotide in terms of efficacy, patient acceptability, and tolerance. Cancer. 2000; 88: 770-776.
  • 115
    Kvols LK, Woltering EA. Role of somatostatin analogs in the clinical management of non-neuroendocrine solid tumors. Anticancer Drugs. 2006; 17: 601-608.
  • 116
    Faiss S, Pape UF, Bohmig M, et al; International Lanreotide and Interferon Alfa Study Group. Prospective, randomized, multicenter trial on the antiproliferative effect of lanreotide, interferon alfa, and their combination for therapy of metastatic neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors–the International Lanreotide and Interferon Alfa Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 2689-2696.
  • 117
    Kolby L, Persson G, Franzen S, Ahren B. Randomized clinical trial of the effect of interferon alpha on survival in patients with disseminated midgut carcinoid tumours. Br J Surg. 2003; 90: 687-693.
  • 118
    Rinke A, Muller HH, Schade-Brittinger C, et al. Placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective, randomized study on the effect of octreotide LAR in the control of tumor growth in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine midgut tumors: a report from the PROMID Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27: 4656-4663.
  • 119
    Kulke MH. Clinical presentation and management of carcinoid tumors. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2007; 21: 433-455; vii-viii.
  • 120
    Turner NC, Strauss SJ, Sarker D, et al. Chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin and streptozocin for neuroendocrine tumours. Br J Cancer. 2010; 102: 1106-1112.
  • 121
    Bukowski RM, Tangen CM, Peterson RF, et al. Phase II trial of dimethyltriazenoimidazole carboxamide in patients with metastatic carcinoid. A Southwest Oncology Group study. Cancer. 1994; 73: 1505-1508.
  • 122
    Bajetta E, Ferrari L, Procopio G, et al. Efficacy of a chemotherapy combination for the treatment of metastatic neuroendocrine tumours. Ann Oncol. 2002; 13: 614-621.
  • 123
    Strosberg J, Fine R, Choi J, et al. First-line chemotherapy with capecitabine and temozolomide in patients with metastatic pancreatic endocrine carcinomas. Cancer. 2010 Sep 7. [Epub ahead of print].
  • 124
    Strosberg J, Choi J, Gardner N, Kvols L. First-line treatment of metastatic pancreatic endo crine carcinomas with capecitabine and temozolomide [abstract]. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26( suppl). Abstract 4612.
  • 125
    Kulke MH, Stuart K, Enzinger PC, et al. Phase II study of temozolomide and thalidomide in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 401-406.
  • 126
    Kwekkeboom DJ, de Herder WW, Kam BL, et al. Treatment with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog [177 Lu-DOTA 0, Tyr3]octreotate: toxicity, efficacy, and survival. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 2124-2130.
  • 127
    Bushnell DL Jr, O'Dorisio TM, O'Dorisio MS, et al. 90Y-edotreotide for metastatic carcinoid refractory to octreotide. J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 1652-1659.
  • 128
    Waldherr C, Pless M, Maecke HR, et al. Tumor response and clinical benefit in neuroendocrine tumors after 7.4 GBq (90)Y-DOTATOC. J Nucl Med. 2002; 43: 610-616.
  • 129
    Yao JC, Phan A, Hoff PM, et al. Targeting vascular endothelial growth factor in advanced carcinoid tumor: a random assignment phase II study of depot octreotide with bevacizumab and pegylated interferon alpha-2b. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 1316-1323.
  • 130
    Kunz P, Kuo T, Kaiser H. A phase II study of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab for metastatic or unresectable neuroendocrine tumors: preliminary results. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26 ( suppl). Abstract 15502.
  • 131
    Venook A, Ko A, Tempero M. Phase II trial of FOLFOX plus bevacizumab in advanced, progressive neuroendocrine tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26 ( suppl). Abstract 15545.
  • 132
    Kulke MH, Lenz HJ, Meropol NJ, et al. Activity of sunitinib in patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 3403-3410.
  • 133
    Hobday T, Rubin J, Holen K. MC044 h, a phase II trial of sorafenib in patients (pts) with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NET): a Phase II Consortium (P2C) study. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25 ( 18S). Abstract 4504.
  • 134
    Pavel M, Bartel C, Heuck F. Open-label, non-randomized, multicenter phase II study evaluating the angiogenesis inhibitor PTK787/ZK222584 (PTK/ZK) in patients with advanced neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC). J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26( suppl). Abstract 14684.
  • 135
    Kulke MH, Bergsland EK, Ryan DP, et al. Phase II study of recombinant human endostatin in patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 3555-3561.
  • 136
    Hobday T, Holen K, Donehower R. A phase II trial of gefitinib in patients with progressive metastatic neuroendocrine tumors: a Phase II Consortium study. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24( 18 suppl). Abstract 4043.
  • 137
    Yao J, Yeung S, Rashid A. Early results of a phase II trial of imatinib in patients with advanced carcinoid tumor [abstract]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2003; 22. Abstract 1491.
  • 138
    Yao JC, Zhang JX, Rashid A, et al. Clinical and in vitro studies of imatinib in advanced carcinoid tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2007; 13: 234-240.
  • 139
    Duran I, Kortmansky J, Singh D, et al. A phase II clinical and pharmacodynamic study of temsirolimus in advanced neuroendocrine carcinomas. Br J Cancer. 2006; 95: 1148-1154.
  • 140
    Yao JC, Phan AT, Chang DZ, et al. Efficacy of RAD001 (everolimus) and octreotide LAR in advanced low- to intermediate-grade neuroendocrine tumors: results of a phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 4311-4318.
  • 141
    Yao JC, Lombard-Bohas C, Baudin E, et al. Daily oral everolimus activity in patients with metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors after failure of cytotoxic chemotherapy: a phase II trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 69-76.
  • 142
    Capurso G, Fazio N, Festa S, Panzuto F, De Braud F, Delle Fave G. Molecular target therapy for gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumours: biological rationale and clinical perspectives. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2009; 72: 110-124.