There have been more drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer in the past 3 years than in the prior 3 decades, with additional drugs on the verge of approval based on the results of recently reported randomized trials. While an improvement in the understanding of the pathogenesis of castration-resistant prostate cancer has undeniably accelerated the transition of novel approaches from “bench to bedside,” the recent successes in the treatment of prostate cancer are also a result of the efforts of clinical investigators to redefine the framework in which drugs for castration-resistant disease are evaluated. This review will explore the shifting paradigm in drug development for castration-resistant prostate cancer over the past several decades, and highlight how new definitions, trial designs, and endpoints have facilitated the emergence of new therapies for this challenging disease. CA Cancer J Clin 2012;. © 2012 American Cancer Society.