• 1
    Van Ness PH. Spirituality and the Secular Quest. New York: Crossroad; 1996.
  • 2
    Puchalski C, Ferrell B, Virani R, et al. Improving the quality of spiritual care as a dimension of palliative care: the report of the Consensus Conference. J Palliat Med. 2009;12:885-904.
  • 3
    Puchalski CM, Lunsford B, Harris MH, Miller RT. Interdisciplinary spiritual care for seriously ill and dying patients: a collaborative model. Cancer J. 2006;12:398-416.
  • 4
    Pargament KI. APA Handbook of Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2013.
  • 5
    Koenig HG. Medicine, Religion, and Health: Where Science and Spirituality Meet. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press; 2008.
  • 6
    Brady MJ, Peterman AH, Fitchett G, Mo M, Cella D. A case for including spirituality in quality of life measurement in oncology. Psychooncology. 1999;8:417-428.
  • 7
    Krupski TL, Kwan L, Fink A, Sonn GA, Maliski S, Litwin MS. Spirituality influences health related quality of life in men with prostate cancer. Psychooncology. 2006;15:121-131.
  • 8
    Zavala MW, Maliski SL, Kwan L, Fink A, Litwin MS. Spirituality and quality of life in low-income men with metastatic prostate cancer. Psychooncology. 2009;18:753-761.
  • 9
    Choumanova I, Wanat S, Barrett R, Koopman C. Religion and spirituality in coping with breast cancer: perspectives of Chilean women. Breast J. 2006;12:349-352.
  • 10
    Samuelson BT, Fromme EK, Thomas CR Jr. Changes in spirituality and quality of life in patients undergoing radiation therapy. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2012;29:449-454.
  • 11
    Yanez B, Edmondson D, Stanton AL, et al. Facets of spirituality as predictors of adjustment to cancer: relative contributions of having faith and finding meaning. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2009;77:730-741.
  • 12
    Johnson KS, Tulsky JA, Hays JC, et al. Which domains of spirituality are associated with anxiety and depression in patients with advanced illness? J Gen Intern Med. 2011;26:751-758.
  • 13
    Tarakeshwar N, Vanderwerker LC, Paulk E, Pearce MJ, Kasl SV, Prigerson HG. Religious coping is associated with the quality of life of patients with advanced cancer. J Palliat Med. 2006;9:646-657.
  • 14
    Vallurupalli M, Lauderdale K, Balboni MJ, et al. The role of spirituality and religious coping in the quality of life of patients with advanced cancer receiving palliative radiation therapy. J Support Oncol. 2012;10:81-87.
  • 15
    Wenzel LB, Donnelly JP, Fowler JM, et al. Resilience, reflection, and residual stress in ovarian cancer survivorship: a gynecologic oncology group study. Psychooncology. 2002;11:142-153.
  • 16
    Boscaglia N, Clarke DM, Jobling TW, Quinn MA. The contribution of spirituality and spiritual coping to anxiety and depression in women with a recent diagnosis of gynecological cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2005;15:755-761.
  • 17
    Steinhauser KE, Christakis NA, Clipp EC, McNeilly M, McIntyre L, Tulsky JA. Factors considered important at the end of life by patients, family, physicians, and other care providers. JAMA. 2000;284:2476-2482.
  • 18
    Winkelman WD, Lauderdale K, Balboni MJ, et al. The relationship of spiritual concerns to the quality of life of advanced cancer patients: preliminary findings. J Palliat Med. 2011;14:1022-1028.
  • 19
    Shaw A, Joseph S, Linley P. Religion, spirituality, and posttraumatic growth: a systematic review. Mental Health, Religion & Culture. 2005;8:1-11.
  • 20
    Hui D, de la Cruz M, Thorney S, Parsons HA, Delgado-Guay M, Bruera E. The frequency and correlates of spiritual distress among patients with advanced cancer admitted to an acute palliative care unit. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2011;28:264-270.
  • 21
    Alcorn SR, Balboni MJ, Prigerson HG, et al. “If God wanted me yesterday, I wouldn't be here today”: religious and spiritual themes in patients' experiences of advanced cancer. J Palliat Med. 2010;13:581-588.
  • 22
    Sharma RK, Astrow AB, Texeira K, Sulmasy DP. The Spiritual Needs Assessment for Patients (SNAP): development and validation of a comprehensive instrument to assess unmet spiritual needs. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2012;44:44-51.
  • 23
    Moadel A, Morgan C, Fatone A, et al. Seeking meaning and hope: self-reported spiritual and existential needs among an ethnically-diverse cancer patient population. Psychooncology. 1999;8:378-385.
  • 24
    Delgado-Guay MO, Hui D, Parsons HA, et al. Spirituality, religiosity, and spiritual pain in advanced cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2011;41:986-994.
  • 25
    Gall TL, Kristjansson E, Charbonneau C, Florack P. A longitudinal study on the role of spirituality in response to the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. J Behav Med. 2009;32:174-186.
  • 26
    Kristeller JL, Sheets V, Johnson T, Frank B. Understanding religious and spiritual influences on adjustment to cancer: individual patterns and differences. J Behav Med. 2011;34:550-561.
  • 27
    Gall TL, Cornblat MW. Breast cancer survivors give voice: a qualitative analysis of spiritual factors in long-term adjustment. Psychooncology. 2002;11:524-535.
  • 28
    Walton J, Sullivan N. Men of prayer: spirituality of men with prostate cancer: a grounded theory study. J Holist Nurs. 2004;22:133-151.
  • 29
    Ahmad F, Muhammad Mb, Abdullah AA. Religion and spirituality in coping with advanced breast cancer: perspectives from Malaysian Muslim women. J Relig Health. 2011;50:36-45.
  • 30
    Hsiao SM, Gau ML, Ingleton C, Ryan T, Shih FJ. An exploration of spiritual needs of Taiwanese patients with advanced cancer during the therapeutic processes. J Clin Nurs. 2011;20:950-959.
  • 31
    Mok E, Wong F, Wong D. The meaning of spirituality and spiritual care among the Hong Kong Chinese terminally ill. J Adv Nurs. 2010;66:360-370.
  • 32
    Pearce MJ, Coan AD, Herndon JE 2nd, Koenig HG, Abernethy AP. Unmet spiritual care needs impact emotional and spiritual well-being in advanced cancer patients. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20:2269-2276.
  • 33
    Astrow AB, Wexler A, Texeira K, He MK, Sulmasy DP. Is failure to meet spiritual needs associated with cancer patients' perceptions of quality of care and their satisfaction with care? J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:5753-5757.
  • 34
    Kang J, Shin DW, Choi JY, et al. Addressing the religious and spiritual needs of dying patients by healthcare staff in Korea: patient perspectives in a multi-religious Asian country. Psychooncology. 2012;21:374-381.
  • 35
    Balboni MJ, Sullivan A, Amobi A, et al. Why is spiritual care infrequent at the end of life? Spiritual care perceptions among patients, nurses, and physicians and the role of training. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:461-467.
  • 36
    Balboni TA, Vanderwerker LC, Block SD, et al. Religiousness and spiritual support among advanced cancer patients and associations with end-of-life treatment preferences and quality of life. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:555-560.
  • 37
    Balboni TA, Paulk ME, Balboni MJ, et al. Provision of spiritual care to patients with advanced cancer: associations with medical care and quality of life near death. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:445-452.
  • 38
    Balboni T, Balboni M, Paulk ME, et al. Support of cancer patients' spiritual needs and associations with medical care costs at the end of life. Cancer. 2011;117:5383-5391.
  • 39
    Balboni TA BM, Phelps AC, Gallivan K, et al. Provision of spiritual support to advanced cancer patients by religious communities and associations with medical care at the end of life. JAMA. In press.
  • 40
    Flannelly KJ, Emanuel LL, Handzo GF, Galek K, Silton NR, Carlson M. A national study of chaplaincy services and end-of-life outcomes. BMC Palliat Care. 2012;11:10.
  • 41
    The Joint Commission. Spirituality, Religion, Beliefs, and Cultural Diversity in JCAHO's Standards/Elements of Performance: Changes between the 2008 and 2009 Certification & Accreditation Manual for Hospitals. E-dition, 2011:PC. 02.02.13.
  • 42
    National Consensus Project Clinical Practice Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care. 3rd ed. Pittsburgh, PA: National Consensus Project; 2013. Accessed March 30, 2013.
  • 43
    Edwards A, Pang N, Shiu V, Chan C. The understanding of spirituality and the potential role of spiritual care in end-of-life and palliative care: a meta-study of qualitative research. Palliat Med. 2010;24:753-770.
  • 44
    Jankowski KR, Handzo GF, Flannelly KJ. Testing the efficacy of chaplaincy care. J Health Care Chaplain. 2011;17:100-125.
  • 45
    Sinclair S, Mysak M, Hagen NA. What are the core elements of oncology spiritual care programs? Palliat Support Care. 2009;7:415-422.
  • 46
    Garland SN, Carlson LE, Cook S, Lansdell L, Speca M. A non-randomized comparison of mindfulness-based stress reduction and healing arts programs for facilitating post-traumatic growth and spirituality in cancer outpatients. Support Care Cancer. 2007;15:949-961.
  • 47
    Foley KL, Farmer DF, Petronis VM, et al. A qualitative exploration of the cancer experience among long-term survivors: comparisons by cancer type, ethnicity, gender, and age. Psychooncology. 2006;15:248-258.
  • 48
    Hoffman CJ, Ersser SJ, Hopkinson JB, Nicholls PG, Harrington JE, Thomas PW. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction in mood, breast- and endocrine-related quality of life, and well-being in stage 0 to III breast cancer: a randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:1335-1342.
  • 49
    Ott MJ, Norris RL, Bauer-Wu SM. Mindfulness meditation for oncology patients: a discussion and critical review. Integr Cancer Ther. 2006;5:98-108.
  • 50
    Cramer H, Lauche R, Paul A, Dobos G. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast cancer-a systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Oncol. 2012;19:e343-e352.
  • 51
    Candy B, Jones L, Varagunam M, Speck P, Tookman A, King M. Spiritual and religious interventions for well-being of adults in the terminal phase of disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;5:CD007544.
  • 52
    Breitbart W, Rosenfeld B, Gibson C, et al. Meaning-centered group psychotherapy for patients with advanced cancer: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Psychooncology. 2010;19:21-28.
  • 53
    Lee V, Robin Cohen S, Edgar L, Laizner AM, Gagnon AJ. Meaning-making intervention during breast or colorectal cancer treatment improves self-esteem, optimism, and self-efficacy. Soc Sci Med. 2006;62:3133-3145.
  • 54
    Chochinov HM, Kristjanson LJ, Breitbart W, et al. Effect of dignity therapy on distress and end-of-life experience in terminally ill patients: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12:753-762.
  • 55
    Peteet JR. Depression and the Soul: A Guide to Spiritually Integrated Treatment. New York: Brunner-Routledge; 2010.
  • 56
    Peteet JR. Cancer and the meaning of work. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2000;22:200-205.
  • 57
    Rusteen T. Hope and quality of life, two central issues for cancer patients: a theoretical analysis. Cancer Nurs. 1995;18:355-361.
  • 58
    Sinclair S, Chochinov HM. The role of chaplains within oncology interdisciplinary teams. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2012;6:259-268.
  • 59
    Puchalski CM. Spirituality and end-of-life care: a time for listening and caring. J Palliat Med. 2002;5:289-294.
  • 60
    Maugans TA. The SPIRITual history. Arch Fam Med. 1996;5:11-16.
  • 61
    Kristeller JL, Rhodes M, Cripe LD, Sheets V. Oncologist Assisted Spiritual Intervention Study (OASIS): patient acceptability and initial evidence of effects. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2005;35:329-347.
  • 62
    McCauley J, Haaz S, Tarpley MJ, Koenig HG, Bartlett SJ. A randomized controlled trial to assess effectiveness of a spiritually-based intervention to help chronically ill adults. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2011;41:91-105.
  • 63
    Lo B, Kates LW, Ruston D, et al. Responding to requests regarding prayer and religious ceremonies by patients near the end of life and their families. J Palliat Med. 2003;6:409-415.
  • 64
    Lo B, Ruston D, Kates LW, et al; Working Group on Religious and Spiritual Issues at the End of Life. Discussing religious and spiritual issues at the end of life: a practical guide for physicians. JAMA. 2002;287:749-754.
  • 65
    Sulmasy DP. Spiritual issues in the care of dying patients:“…it's okay between me and god.” JAMA. 2006;296:1385-1392.
  • 66
    Widera EW, Rosenfeld KE, Fromme EK, Sulmasy DP, Arnold RM. Approaching patients and family members who hope for a miracle. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2011;42:119-125.
  • 67
    Peteet JR. Case discussion: disease as punishment. South Med J. 2006;99:434-435.
  • 68
    Sloan RP, Bagiella E, VandeCreek L, et al. Should physicians prescribe religious activities? N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1913-1916.
  • 69
    Post SG, Puchalski CM, Larson DB. Physicians and patient spirituality: professional boundaries, competency, and ethics. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:578-583.
  • 70
    Handzo G, Koenig HG. Spiritual care: whose job is it anyway? South Med J. 2004;97:1242-1244.
  • 71
    Cadge W. Paging God: Religion in the Halls of Medicine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 2012.
  • 72
    Balboni MJ, Balboni TA. Reintegrating care for the dying, body and soul. Harvard Theolog Rev. 2010;103:351-364.
  • 73
    Phelps AC, Maciejewski PK, Nilsson M, et al. Religious coping and use of intensive life-prolonging care near death in patients with advanced cancer. JAMA. 2009;301:1140-1147.
  • 74
    Rasinski KA, Kalad YG, Yoon JD, Curlin FA. An assessment of US physicians' training in religion, spirituality, and medicine. Med Teach. 2011;33:944-945.
  • 75
    White M, Verhoef M. Cancer as part of the journey: the role of spirituality in the decision to decline conventional prostate cancer treatment and to use complementary and alternative medicine. Integr Cancer Ther. 2006;5:117-122.
  • 76
    Silvestri GA, Knittig S, Zoller JS, Nietert PJ. Importance of faith on medical decisions regarding cancer care. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:1379-1382.
  • 77
    Hsiao AF, Wong MD, Miller MF, et al. Role of religiosity and spirituality in complementary and alternative medicine use among cancer survivors in California. Integr Cancer Ther. 2008;7:139-146.
  • 78
    Daugherty CK, Fitchett G, Murphy PE, et al. Trusting God and medicine: spirituality in advanced cancer patients volunteering for clinical trials of experimental agents. Psychooncology. 2005;14:135-146.
  • 79
    Wyatt G, Friedman LL. Long-term female cancer survivors: quality of life issues and clinical implications. Cancer Nurs. 1996;19:1-7.
  • 80
    Ferrell BR, Smith SL, Juarez G, Melancon C. Meaning of illness and spirituality in ovarian cancer survivors. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2003;30:249-257.
  • 81
    Bauer-Wu S, Farran CJ. Meaning in life and psycho-spiritual functioning: a comparison of breast cancer survivors and healthy women. J Holist Nurs. 2005;23:172-190.
  • 82
    Edmondson D, Park CL, Blank TO, Fenster JR, Mills MA. Deconstructing spiritual well-being: existential well-being and HRQOL in cancer survivors. Psychooncology. 2008;17:161-169.
  • 83
    Park CL, Edmondson D, Hale-Smith A, Blank TO. Religiousness/spirituality and health behaviors in younger adult cancer survivors: does faith promote a healthier lifestyle? J Behav Med. 2009;32:582-591.
  • 84
    Jim HS, Purnell JQ, Richardson SA, Golden-Kreutz D, Andersen BL. Measuring meaning in life following cancer. Qual Life Res. 2006;15:1355-1371.
  • 85
    Denney R, Aten J, Leavell K. Posttraumatic spiritual growth: a phenomenological study of cancer survivors. Religion, Mental Health and Culture. 2011;14:371-391.
  • 86
    Park CL, Edmondson D, Fenster JR, Blank TO. Meaning making and psychological adjustment following cancer: the mediating roles of growth, life meaning, and restored just-world beliefs. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008;76:863-875.
  • 87
    Shin HW, Noh DY, Lee ES, et al. Correlates of existential well-being and their association with health-related quality of life in breast cancer survivors compared with the general population. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;118:139-150.
  • 88
    Canada AL, Fitchett G, Murphy PE, et al. Racial/ethnic differences in spiritual well-being among cancer survivors [published online ahead of print July 3, 2012]. J Behav Med.
  • 89
    Frost MH, Johnson ME, Atherton PJ, et al. Spiritual well-being and quality of life of women with ovarian cancer and their spouses. J Support Oncol. 2012;10:72-80.
  • 90
    Meert KL, Thurston CS, Briller SH. The spiritual needs of parents at the time of their child's death in the pediatric intensive care unit and during bereavement: a qualitative study. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005;6:420-427.
  • 91
    Hexem KR, Mollen CJ, Carroll K, Lanctot DA, Feudtner C. How parents of children receiving pediatric palliative care use religion, spirituality, or life philosophy in tough times. J Palliat Med. 2011;14:39-44.
  • 92
    Ka'opua LS, Gotay CC, Boehm PS. Spiritually based resources in adaptation to long-term prostate cancer survival: perspectives of elderly wives. Health Soc Work. 2007;32:29-39.
  • 93
    Hegarty MM, Abernethy AP, Olver I, Currow DC. Former palliative caregivers who identify that additional spiritual support would have been helpful in a population survey. Palliat Med. 2011;25:266-277.
  • 94
    Becker G, Xander CJ, Blum HE, et al. Do religious or spiritual beliefs influence bereavement? A systematic review. Palliat Med. 2007;21:207-217.
  • 95
    Wortmann JH, Park CL. Religion and spirituality in adjustment following bereavement: an integrative review. Death Stud. 2008;32:703-736.
  • 96
    Currier JM, Mallot J, Martinez TE, Charlotte S, Neimeyer RA. Bereavement, religion, and posttraumatic growth: a matched control group investigation. Psycholog Relig Spiritual. 2012.
  • 97
    Balk DE. Bereavement and spiritual change. Death Stud. 1999;23:485-493.
  • 98
    Golsworthy R, Coyle A. Practitioners' accounts of religious and spiritual dimensions in bereavement therapy. Couns Psychol Q. 2001;14:183-202.
  • 99
    Damianakis T, Marziali E. Older adults' response to the loss of a spouse: the function of spirituality in understanding the grieving process. Aging Ment Health. 2012;16:57-66.
  • 100
    Exline JJ, Park CL, Smyth JM, Carey MP. Anger toward God: social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011;100:129-148.
  • 101
    Minor HG, Carlson LE, Mackenzie MJ, Zernicke K, Jones L. Evaluation of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program for caregivers of children with chronic conditions. Soc Work Health Care. 2006;43:91-109.
  • 102
    Birnie K, Garland SN, Carlson LE. Psychological benefits for cancer patients and their partners participating in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Psychooncology. 2010;19:1004-1009.
  • 103
    Curlin FA, Lantos JD, Roach CJ, Sellergren SA, Chin MH. Religious characteristics of U.S. physicians: a national survey. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20:629-634.
  • 104
    Curlin FA, Lawrence RE, Odell S, et al. Religion, spirituality, and medicine: psychiatrists' and other physicians' differing observations, interpretations, and clinical approaches. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1825-1831.
  • 105
    Curlin FA, Odell SV, Lawrence RE, et al. The relationship between psychiatry and religion among U.S. physicians. Psychiatr Serv. 2007;58:1193-1198.
  • 106
    Balboni MJ, Sullivan A, Amobi A, et al. Why is spiritual care infrequent at the end of life? Spiritual care perceptions among patients, nurses, and physicians and the role of training. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:461-467.
  • 107
    Ecklund EH, Cadge W, Gage EA, Catlin EA. The religious and spiritual beliefs and practices of academic pediatric oncologists in the United States. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007;29:736-742.
  • 108
    Berg GM, Crowe RE, Budke G, et al. Kansas physician assistants' attitudes and beliefs regarding spirituality and religiosity in patient care [published online ahead of print September 16, 2011]. J Relig Health.
  • 109
    Phelps AC, Lauderdale KE, Alcorn S, et al. Addressing spirituality within the care of patients at the end of life: perspectives of patients with advanced cancer, oncologists, and oncology nurses. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:2538-2544.
  • 110
    Ford DW, Downey L, Engelberg R, Back AL, Curtis JR. Discussing religion and spirituality is an advanced communication skill: an exploratory structural equation model of physician trainee self-ratings. J Palliat Med. 2012;15:63-70.
  • 111
    Todres ID, Catlin EA, Thiel MM. The intensivist in a spiritual care training program adapted for clinicians. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:2733-2736.
  • 112
    Boston PH, Mount BM. The caregiver's perspective on existential and spiritual distress in palliative care. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006;32:13-26.
  • 113
    Wicks RJ. The Resilient Clinician. New York: Oxford University Press; 2008.
  • 114
    Harrison RL, Westwood MJ. Preventing vicarious traumatization of mental health therapists: identifying protective practices. Psychotherapy (Chic). 2009;46:203-219.
  • 115
    Kearney MK, Weininger RB, Vachon ML, Harrison RL, Mount BM. Self-care of physicians caring for patients at the end of life: “Being connected…a key to my survival.” JAMA. 2009;301:1155-1164, E1.
  • 116
    Kash KM, Holland JC, Breitbart W, et al. Stress and burnout in oncology. Oncology (Williston Park). 2000;14:1621-1633; discussion 1633-1634, 1636-1637.
  • 117
    Huggard P. Managing Compassion Fatigue: Implications for Medical Education. [doctoral thesis]. Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland; 2009.
  • 118
    Figley CR, ed. Compassion Fatigue: Coping With Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder in Those Who Treat the Traumatized. New York: Brunner-Routledge; 1995.
  • 119
    Shapiro SL, Schwartz GE, Bonner G. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. J Behav Med. 1998;21:581-599.
  • 120
    Shapiro S, Astin J, Bishop S, Cordova M. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for health care professionals: results from a randomized trial. Int J Stress Manage. 2005;15:164-176.
  • 121
    Irving JA, Dobkin PL, Park J. Cultivating mindfulness in health care professionals: a review of empirical studies of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2009;15:61-66.
  • 122
    Krasner MS, Epstein RM, Beckman H, et al. Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes among primary care physicians. JAMA. 2009;302:1284-1293.
  • 123
    Salander P. The emperor's new clothes: spirituality. A concept based on questionable ontology and circular findings. Arch Psychol Religion. 2012;34:17-32.
  • 124
    Cole BS, Hopkins CM, Tisak J, Steel JL, Carr BI. Assessing spiritual growth and spiritual decline following a diagnosis of cancer: reliability and validity of the spiritual transformation scale. Psychooncology. 2008;17:112-121.
  • 125
    Mack JW, Nilsson M, Balboni T, et al. Peace, Equanimity, and Acceptance in the Cancer Experience (PEACE): validation of a scale to assess acceptance and struggle with terminal illness. Cancer. 2008;112:2509-2517.
  • 126
    Astrow AB, Sharma RK, Huang Y, Xu Y, Sulmasy DP. A Chinese version of the Spiritual Needs Assessment for Patients survey instrument. J Palliat Med. 2012;15:1297-1315.
  • 127
    Bussing A, Balzat HJ, Heusser P. Spiritual needs of patients with chronic pain diseases and cancer-validation of the spiritual needs questionnaire. Eur J Med Res. 2010;15:266-273.
  • 128
    Yong J, Kim J, Seo I, Yang Y. Examination of reliability and validity of the Spiritual Needs Scale in Korean nurses. J Hosp Palliat Nurs. 2011;13:153-160.
  • 129
    Monod S, Martin E, Spencer B, Rochat E, Bula C. Validation of the Spiritual Distress Assessment Tool in older hospitalized patients. BMC Geriatr. 2012;12:13.
  • 130
    Blanchard JH, Dunlap DA, Fitchett G. Screening for spiritual distress in the oncology inpatient: a quality improvement pilot project between nurses and chaplains. J Nurs Manag. 2012;20:1076-1084.
  • 131
    Draper P. An integrative review of spiritual assessment: implications for nursing management. J Nurs Manag. 2012;20:970-980.
  • 132
    Sulmasy DP. A biopsychosocial-spiritual model for the care of patients at the end of life. Gerontologist. 2002;42(3, special issue):24-33.
  • 133
    Kalish N. Evidence-based spiritual care: a literature review. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2012;6:242-246.
  • 134
    Boston P, Bruce A, Schreiber R. Existential suffering in the palliative care setting: an integrated literature review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2011;41:604-618.
  • 135
    Kale SS. Perspectives on spiritual care at Hospice Africa Uganda. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2011;17:177-182.
  • 136
    Moczynski W, Haler H, Bentele K, eds. Medical Ethics in Health Care Chaplaincy. Berlin: LIT Verlag; 2009.