New developments in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer

Authors

  • David F. Schneider MD, MS,

    1. Assistant Professor of Surgery, Section of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI
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  • Herbert Chen MD

    Corresponding author
    1. Professor of Surgery, Chairman, Division of General Surgery, Vice-Chairman of Research, Department of Surgery, Layton F. Rikkers, MD, Chair in Surgical Leadership, Section of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI
    • Corresponding author: David F. Schneider, MD, MS, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin, K3/739 Clinical Science Center, 600 Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53792; schneiderd@surgery.wisc.edu

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  • DISCLOSURES: Supported by National Institutes of Health grant T32 CA009614-23.

Abstract

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Thyroid cancer exists in several forms. Differentiated thyroid cancers include those with papillary and follicular histologies. These tumors exist along a spectrum of differentiation, and their incidence continues to climb. A number of advances in the diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers now exist. These include molecular diagnostics and more advanced strategies for risk stratification. Medullary cancer arises from the parafollicular cells and not the follicular cells. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment differs from those of differentiated thyroid tumors. Genetic testing and newer adjuvant therapies have changed the diagnosis and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. This review will focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis, workup, and treatment of both differentiated and medullary thyroid cancers, focusing specifically on newer developments in the field. CA Cancer J Clin 2013;63:373-394. ©2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

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