• 1
    Smith RA, Mettlin CJ, Davis KJ, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2000; 50:3449.
  • 2
    Smith RA, von Eschenbach AC, Wender R, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of cancer: Update of early detection guidelines for prostate, colorectal, and endometrial cancers. Also: Update 2001—testing for early lung cancer detection. CA Cancer J Clin 2001; 51:3875.
  • 3
    Smith RA, Cokkinides V, von Eschenbach, AC, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2002; 52:822.
  • 4
    Saslow D, Runowicz CD, Solomon D, et al. American Cancer Society guideline for the early detection of cervical neoplasia and cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2002; 52:342362.
  • 5
    Leitch AM, Dodd GD, Costanza M, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of breast cancer: Update 1997. CA Cancer J Clin 1997; 47:150153.
  • 6
    Burke W, Daly M, Garber J, et al. Recommendations for follow-up care of individuals with an inherited predisposition to cancer. II. BRCA1 and BRCA2. Cancer Genetics Studies Consortium. JAMA 1997; 277:9971003.
  • 7
    US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for breast cancer: Recommendations and rationale. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137:344346.
  • 8
    Olsen O, Gøtzsche PC. Screening for breast cancer with mammography (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; 4:CD001877.
  • 9
    Olsen O, Gøtzsche PC. Cochrane review on screening for breast cancer with mammography. Lancet 2001; 358:13401342.
  • 10
    Baxter N. Preventive health care, 2001 update: Should women be routinely taught breast self-examination to screen for breast cancer? CMAJ 2001; 164:18371846.
  • 11
    Horton R. Screening mammography—an overview revisited. Lancet 2001; 358:12841285.
  • 12
    Swedish Board of Health and Welfare. Vilka Effekter Har Mammografiscreening?Referat av ett expertmöte anordnat av Socialstyrelsen och Cancerfonden i Stockholm den 15 februari 2002, 2002
  • 13
    Health Council of the Netherlands. The benefit of population screening for breast cancer with mammography. The Hague, 2002
  • 14
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Mammography screening can reduce deaths from breast cancer, 2002
  • 15
    Veronese U, Forrest P, Wood W, et al. Statement from the chair: Global Summit on Mammographic Screening, 3rd-5th June, 2002; Presented at: European Institute of Oncology; Milan, Italy.
  • 16
    Tabar L, Smith RA, Duffy SW. Update on effects of screening mammography. Lancet 2002; 360:337;discussion 339–40.
  • 17
    Nystrom L, Andersson I, Bjurstam N, et al. Long-term effects of mammography screening: Updates overview of the Swedish randomised trials. Lancet 2002; 359:909919.
  • 18
    Overgaard J, Bartelink H. Breast cancer survival advantage with radiotherapy. Lancet 2000; 356:12691270; discussion 1271.
  • 19
    Ragaz J, Spinelli JJ, Coldman AJ. Breast cancer survival advantage with radiotherapy. Lancet 2000; 356:1270; discussion 1271.
  • 20
    Tabar L, Dean PB. The value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years. Invest Radiol 1989; 24:420424.
  • 21
    de Koning HJ, van Oortmarssen GJ, van Ineveld BM, et al. Breast cancer screening: Its impact on clinical medicine. Br J Cancer 1990; 61:292297.
  • 22
    Foster RS, Jr, Farwell ME, Costanza MC. Breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer: Patterns of care in a geographic region and estimation of potential applicability. Ann Surg Oncol 1995; 2:275280.
  • 23
    Paci E, Duffy S, Giorgi D, et al. Are breast cancer screening programmes increasing rates of mastectomy? BMJ 2002; 325:418.
  • 24
    Sox H. Screening mammography for younger women: Back to basics. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137:361362.
  • 25
    Humphrey LL, Helfand M, Chan BK, et al. Breast cancer screening: A summary of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137:347360.
  • 26
    Duffy S, Tabar L, Chen HH, et al. The impact of organized mammographic service screening on breast cancer mortality in seven Swedish counties. Cancer 2002; 95:458469.
  • 27
    Tabar L, Vitak B, Tony HH, et al. Beyond randomized controlled trials: Organized mammographic screening substantially reduces breast carcinoma mortality. Cancer 2001; 91:17241731.
  • 28
    Paci E, Duffy SW, Giorgi D, et al. Quantification of the effect of mammographic screening on fatal breast cancers: The Florence Programme 1990–96. Br J Cancer 2002; 87:6569.
  • 29
    Thomas DB, Gao DL, Self SG, et al. Randomized trial of breast self-examination in Shanghai: Methodology and preliminary results [see comments]. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89:355365.
  • 30
    Thomas DB, Gao DL, Ray RM, et al. Randomized trial of breast self-examination in Shanghai: Final results. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94:14451457.
  • 31
    Harvey BJ, Miller AB, Baines CJ, et al. Effect of breast self-examination techniques on the risk of death from breast cancer. Can Med Assoc J 1997; 157:12051212.
  • 32
    Levin B, Brooks D, Smith RA, et al. Emerging technologies in screening for colorectal cancer: CT colonography, immunochemical fecal occult blood tests, and stool screening using molecular markers. CA Cancer J Clin 2003; 53:4455.
  • 33
    US Preventive Services Task Force. Summaries for patients. Screening for colorectal cancer: Recommendations from the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137:I38.
  • 34
    de Koning HJ, Auvinen A, Berenguer Sanchez A, et al. Large-scale randomized prostate cancer screening trials: Program performances in the European Randomized Screening for Prostate Cancer trial and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovary cancer trial. Int J Cancer 2002; 97:237244.
  • 35
    Gohagan J, Prorok P, Kramer B. The prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial of the National Cancer Institute. Cancer 1995; 75:18691873.
  • 36
    Holmberg L, Bill-Axelson A, Helgesen F, et al. A randomized trial comparing radical prostatectomy with watchful waiting in early prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:781789.
  • 37
    Walsh PC. Surgery and the reduction of mortality from prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:839840.
  • 38
    Whitmore WF, Jr. Natural history of low-stage prostatic cancer and the impact of early detection. Urol Clin North Am 1990; 17:689697.
  • 39
    Tarone RE, Chu KC, Brawley OW. Implications of stage-specific survival rates in assessing recent declines in prostate cancer mortality rates. Epidemiology 2000; 11:167170.
  • 40
    Bartsch G, Horninger W, Klocker H, et al. Prostate cancer mortality after introduction of prostate-specific antigen mass screening in the Federal State of Tyrol, Austria. Urology 2001; 58:417424.
  • 41
    Steineck G, Helgesen F, Adolfsson J, et al. Quality of life after radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:790796.
  • 42
    Eddy D. ACS report on the cancer-related checkup. CACancer J Clin 1980; 30:193240.
  • 43
    Henschke CI, McCauley DI, Yankelevitz DF, et al. Early Lung Cancer Action Project: Overall design and findings from baseline screening [see comments]. Lancet 1999; 354:99105.
  • 44
    Peto R, Darby S, Deo H, et al. Smoking, smoking cessation, and lung cancer in the UK since 1950: Combination of national statistics with two case-control studies [see comments]. BMJ 2000; 321:323329.
  • 45
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. vol. 2000
  • 46
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Health Interview Survey: National Center for Health Statistics, Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002.
  • 47
    US Census Bureau. Abstracts of the United States: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000
  • 48
    Miller BA, Kolonel LN, Bernstein L, et al. Racial/ethnic patterns of cancer in the United States 1988–1992. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 1996. National Institutes of Health publication no. 96–4104.
  • 49
    Marks J, Lee N. Implementing recommendations for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among low-income women. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2000; 49:3555.
  • 50
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, 2002
  • 51
    Hoffman-Goetz L, Mills S. Cultural barriers to cancer screening among African American women: A critical review of the qualitative literature. Women's Health 1997; 3(3–4):183201.
  • 52
    Phillips KA, Kerlikowske K, Baker L, et al. Factors associated with women's adherence to mammography screening guidelines. Health Services Research 1998; 33:2953.
  • 53
    Potosky AL, Breen N, Graubard BI, et al. The association between health care coverage and the use of cancer screening tests. Results from the 1992 National Health Interview Survey. Med Care 1998; 36:257270.
  • 54
    Davis TC, Arnold C, Berkel HJ, et al. Knowledge and attitude on screening mammography among low-literate, low-income women. Cancer 1996; 78:19121920.
  • 55
    Hawley ST, Earp JA, O'Malley M, et al. The role of physician recommendation in women's mammography use: Is it a 2-stage process? Med Care 2000; 38:392403.
  • 56
    Lane DS, Caplan LS, Grimson R. Trends in mammography use and their relation to physician and other factors. Cancer Detect Prev 1996; 20:332341.
  • 57
    Breen N, Wagener DK, Brown ML, et al. Progress in cancer screening over a decade: Results of cancer screening from the 1987, 1992, and 1998 National Health Interview Surveys. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93:17041713.