Each January, the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its recommendations for early cancer detection, including guideline updates, emerging issues that are relevant to screening for cancer, and a summary of the most current data on cancer screening rates for US adults. In 2005, there were no updates to ACS guidelines. In this issue of the journal, we summarize the guidelines, discuss recent evidence and policy changes that have implications for cancer screening, and provide an update of the most recent data pertaining to participation rates in cancer screening by age, sex, and insurance status from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.