• 1
    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (http://www.seer. SEER*Stat Database: Incidence—SEER 9 Regs Public-Use, Nov 2004 Sub (1973-2002), National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch. April 2005, based on the November 2004 submission.
  • 2
    Clegg LX, Feuer EJ, Midthune DN, et al. Impact of reporting delay and reporting error on cancer incidence rates and trends. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 15371545.
  • 3
    North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. NAACCR Incidence—CiNA Analytic File, 1995-2002.
  • 4
    National Center for Health Statistics Division of Vital Statistics Centers for Disease Control. Available at: Accessed January 24, 2006.
  • 5
    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (http://www.seer. SEER*Stat Database: Mortality—All COD, Public-Use With State, Total US for Expanded Races (1990-2002), National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch. April 2005. Underlying mortality data provided by NCHS (
  • 6
    US Census Bureau. Available at: Accessed January 24, 2006.
  • 7
    Singh GK, Miller BA, Hankey BF, Edwards BK. Area socio-economic variation in US cancer incidence, mortality, stage, treatment, and survival 1975-1999. NCI Cancer Surveillance Monograph Series, Number 4. Vol Number 4. NIH Publication No. 03-5417 ed. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2003.
  • 8
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Public Use Data Tape 2004. Atlanta, Georgia: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2005.
  • 9
    National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2004 with Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2004.
  • 10
    SAS Institute. SAS 9. 1. 3 Help and Documentation. Cary, NC: SAS Institute; 2000–2004.
  • 11
    Research Triangle Institute. SUDAAN user's manual, release 7. 5. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute; 1997.
  • 12
    Wingo PA, Landis S, Parker S, et al. Using cancer registry and vital statistics to estimate the number of new cases cancer cases and deaths in the US for the upcoming year. J Reg Management 1998; 25: 4351.
  • 13
    Tiwari RC, Ghosh K, Jemal A, et al. A new method of predicting US and state-level cancer mortality counts for the current calendar year. CA Cancer J Clin 2004; 54: 3040.
  • 14
    Kim HJ, Fay MP, Feuer EJ, Midthune DN. Permutation tests for joinpoint regression with applications to cancer rates. Stat Med 2000; 19: 335351.
  • 15
    Ries LAG, Eisner MP, Kosary CL, et al. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2002. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2005.
  • 16
    Surveillance Research Program, National Cancer Institute SEER*Stat software (http://www.seer., version 6. 1. 4.
  • 17
    Chlebowski RT, Hendrix SL, Langer RD, et al. Influence of estrogen plus progestin on breast cancer and mammography in healthy postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Trial. JAMA 2003; 289: 32433253.
  • 18
    Haas JS, Kaplan CP, Gerstenberger EP, Kerlikowske K. Changes in the use of postmenopausal hormone therapy after the publication of clinical trial results. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 184188.
  • 19
    Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, et al. Births: final data for 2003. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2005; 54: 1116.
  • 20
    Flegal KM. Epidemiologic aspects of overweight and obesity in the United States. Physiol Behav 2005; 86: 599602.
  • 21
    Feigelson HS, Jonas CR, Teras LR, et al. Weight gain, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, and postmenopausal breast cancer in a large prospective study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13: 220224.
  • 22
    International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC). IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention. Volume 6: Weight control and physical activity. Lyon: IARC Press; 2002.
  • 23
    Magnusson CM, Roddam AW, Pike MC, et al. Body fatness and physical activity at young ages and the risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women. Br J Cancer 2005; 93: 817824.
  • 24
    Potischman N, Swanson CA, Siiteri P, Hoover RN. Reversal of relation between body mass and endogenous estrogen concentrations with menopausal status. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996; 88: 756758.
  • 25
    Reintgen D, Giuliano R, Cox CE. Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: an overview. Breast J 2000; 6: 299305.
    Direct Link:
  • 26
    Mullenix PS, Brown TA, Meyers MO, et al. The association of cytokeratin-only-positive sentinel lymph nodes and subsequent metastases in breast cancer. Am J Surg 2005; 189: 606609.
  • 27
    Keating NL, Cleary PD, Rossi AS, et al. Use of hormone replacement therapy by postmenopausal women in the United States. Ann Intern Med 1999; 130: 545553.
  • 28
    Brett KM, Madans JH. Use of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy: estimates from a nationally representative cohort study. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 145: 536545.
  • 29
    Talley LI, Grizzle WE, Waterbor JW, et al. Hormone receptors and proliferation in breast carcinomas of equivalent histologic grades in pre- and postmenopausal women. Int J Cancer 2002; 98: 118127.
  • 30
    Kessler LG. The relationship between age and incidence of breast cancer. Population and screening program data. Cancer 1992; 69( 7 Suppl): 18961903.
  • 31
    Peek ME. Screening mammography in the elderly: a review of the issues. J Am Med Womens Assoc 2003; 58: 191198.
  • 32
    Blanchard K, Colbert JA, Puri D, et al. Mammographic screening: patterns of use and estimated impact on breast carcinoma survival. Cancer 2004; 101: 495507.
  • 33
    Jones BA, Dailey A, Calvocoressi L, et al. Inadequate follow-up of abnormal screening mammograms: findings from the race differences in screening mammography process study (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2005; 16: 809821.
  • 34
    Bradley CJ, Given CW, Roberts C. Race, socioeconomic status, and breast cancer treat-ment and survival. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 490496.
  • 35
    Chlebowski RT, Chen Z, Anderson GL, et al. Ethnicity and breast cancer: factors influencing differences in incidence and outcome. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97: 439448.
  • 36
    Jemal A, Clegg LX, Ward E, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2001, with a special feature regarding survival. Cancer 2004; 101: 327.
  • 37
    Elkin EB, Hudis C, Begg CB, Schrag D. The effect of changes in tumor size on breast carcinoma survival in the United States: 1975-1999. Cancer 2005; 104: 11491157.
  • 38
    Vastag B. Breast cancer racial gap examined: no easy answers to explain disparities in survival. JAMA 2003; 290: 18381842.
  • 39
    Berry DA, Cronin KA, Plevritis SK, et al. Effect of screening and adjuvant therapy on mortality from breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 17841792.
  • 40
    Shavers VL, Brown ML. Racial and ethnic disparities in the receipt of cancer treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 334357.
  • 41
    Ballard-Barbash R, Potosky AL, Harlan LC, et al. Factors associated with surgical and radiation therapy for early stage breast cancer in older women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996; 88: 716726.
  • 42
    Joslyn SA. Racial differences in treatment and survival from early-stage breast carcinoma. Cancer 2002; 95: 17591766.
  • 43
    Haggstrom DA, Quale C, Smith-Bindman R. Differences in the quality of breast cancer care among vulnerable populations. Cancer 2005; 104: 23472358.
  • 44
    Wojcik BE, Spinks MK, Optenberg SA. Breast carcinoma survival analysis for African American and White women in an equal-access health care system. Cancer 1998; 82: 13101318.
  • 45
    Porter PL, Lund MJ, Lin MG, et al. Racial differences in the expression of cell cycle-regulatory proteins in breast carcinoma. Cancer 2004; 100: 25332542.
  • 46
    Swan J, Breen N, Coates RJ, et al. Progress in cancer screening practices in the United States: results from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Cancer 2003; 97: 15281540.
  • 47
    Sturgeon SR, Schairer C, Grauman D, et al. Trends in breast cancer mortality rates by region of the United States, 1950-1999. Cancer Causes Control 2004; 15: 987995.
  • 48
    Carney PA, Goodrich ME, Mackenzie T, et al. Utilization of screening mammography in New Hampshire: a population-based assessment. Cancer 2005; 104: 17261732.
  • 49
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program Fact Sheet 2004/2005. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2005.