SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Saslow D, Runowicz CD, Solomon D, et al. American Cancer Society guideline for the early detection of cervical neoplasia and cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2002; 52:342362.
  • 2
    Ault KA, Giuliano AR, Edwards RP, et al. A phase I study to evaluate a human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18 L1 VLP vaccine. Vaccine 2004; 22:30043007.
  • 3
    Harper DM, Franco EL, Wheeler CM, et al. Efficacy of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine in prevention of infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 364:17571765.
  • 4
    Harper DM, Franco EL, Wheeler CM, et al. Sustained efficacy up to 4.5 years of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine against human papillomavirus types 16 and 18: follow-up from a randomised control trial. Lancet 2006; 367:12471255.
  • 5
    Koutsky LA, Ault KA, Wheeler CM, et al. A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:16451651.
  • 6
    Mao C, Koutsky LA, Ault KA, et al. Efficacy of human papillomavirus-16 vaccine to prevent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2006; 107:1827.
  • 7
    Villa LL, Costa RL, Petta CA, et al. Prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine in young women: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre phase II efficacy trial. Lancet Oncol 2005; 6:271278.
  • 8
    Franco EL, Harper DM. Vaccination against human papillomavirus infection: a new paradigm in cervical cancer control. Vaccine 2005; 23:23882394.
  • 9
    Frazer IH, Cox JT, Mayeaux EJ, Jr, et al. Advances in prevention of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus-related diseases. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006; 25(suppl):S65S81, quiz S82.
  • 10
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, et al. Cancer statistics, 2006. CA Cancer J Clin 2006; 56:106130.
  • 11
    Pagliusi, S. World Health Organization. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer. Available at: http://www.who.int/vaccine_research/diseases/hpv/en/. Accessed October 26, 2006.
  • 12
    Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol 1999; 189:1219.
  • 13
    Munoz N, Bosch FX, de Sanjose S, et al. Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:518527.
  • 14
    Bosch FX, Manos MM, Munoz N, et al. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: a worldwide perspective. Internationalbiological study on cervical cancer (IBSCC) Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995; 87:796802.
  • 15
    Clifford GM, Smith JS, Aguado T, Franceschi S. Comparison of HPV type distribution in high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer: a meta-analysis. Br J Cancer 2003; 89:101105.
  • 16
    Human papillomavirus testing for triage of women with cytologic evidence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions: baseline data from a randomized trial. The Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance/Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Triage Study (ALTS) Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92:397402.
  • 17
    Herrero R, Castle PE, Schiffman M, et al. Epidemiologic profile of type-specific human papillomavirus infection and cervical neoplasia in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. J Infect Dis 2005; 191:17961807.
  • 18
    Daling JR, Madeleine MM, Johnson LG, et al. Human papillomavirus, smoking, and sexual practices in the etiology of anal cancer. Cancer 2004; 101:270280.
  • 19
    Schiffman M, Kjaer SK. Chapter 2: Natural history of anogenital human papillomavirus infection and neoplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2003; 31:1419. Review.
  • 20
    Trimble CL, Hildesheim A, Brinton LA, et al. Heterogeneous etiology of squamous carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 87:5964.
  • 21
    Munoz N, Castellsague X, de Gonzalez AB, Gissmann L. Chapter 1: HPV in the etiology of human cancer. Vaccine 2006; 24(suppl):S1S10.
  • 22
    Rubin MA, Kleter B, Zhou M, et al. Detection and typing of human papillomavirus DNA in penile carcinoma: evidence for multiple independent pathways of penile carcinogenesis. Am J Pathol 2001; 159:12111218.
  • 23
    Daling JR, Madeleine MM, Schwartz SM, et al. A population-based study of squamous cell vaginal cancer: HPV and cofactors. Gynecol Oncol 2002; 84:263270.
  • 24
    Cupp MR, Malek RS, Goellner JR, et al. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the male urethra. Urology 1996; 48:551555.
  • 25
    Forastiere A, Koch W, Trotti A, Sidransky D. Head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:18901900.
  • 26
    Herrero R, Castellsague X, Pawlita M, et al. Human papillomavirus and oral cancer: the International Agency for Research on Cancer multicenter study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95:17721783.
  • 27
    Kreimer AR, Clifford GM, Boyle P, Franceschi S. Human papillomavirus types in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas worldwide: a systematic review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14:467475.
  • 28
    Greer CE, Wheeler CM, Ladner MB, et al. Human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution and serological response to HPV type 6 virus-like particles in patients with genital warts. J Clin Microbiol 1995; 33:20582063.
  • 29
    Munk C, Svare EI, Poll P, et al. History of genital warts in 10,838 women 20 to 29 years of age from the general population. Risk factors and association with Papanicolaou smear history. Sex Transm Dis 1997; 24:567572.
  • 30
    Workowski KA, Berman SM, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006. MMWR Recomm Rep 2006; 55:194.
  • 31
    Cubilla AL, Velazques EF, Reuter VE, et al. Warty (condylomatous) squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: a report of 11 cases and proposed classification of verruciform' penile tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 2000; 24:505512.
  • 32
    Reeves WC, Ruparelia SS, Swanson KI, et al. National registry for juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003; 129:976982.
  • 33
    Go C, Schwartz MR, Donovan DT. Molecular transformation of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: viral typing and p53 overexpression. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2003; 112:298302.
  • 34
    Silver RD, Rimell FL, Adams GL, et al. Diagnosis and management of pulmonary metastasis from recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003; 129:622629.
  • 35
    Lele SM, Pou AM, Ventura K, et al. Molecular events in the progression of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis to carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2002; 126:11841188.
  • 36
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Handbooks of Cancer Prevention: Cervix Cancer Screening. Vol. 10. Lyon, France: IARC; 2005.
  • 37
    Devesa SS. Descriptive epidemiology of cancer of the uterine cervix. Obstet Gynecol 1984; 63:605612.
  • 38
    Ries L, Harkins D, Krapcho M, et al. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2003: National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2006.
  • 39
    Kitchener HC, Castle PE, Cox JT. Chapter 7: Achievements and limitations of cervical cytology screening. Vaccine 2006; 24(suppl):S63S70.
  • 40
    Sawaya GF, Washington AE. Cervical cancer screening: which techniques should be used and why? Clin Obstet Gynecol 1999; 42:922938.
  • 41
    Nanda K, McCrory DC, Myers ER, et al. Accuracy of the Papanicolaou test in screening for and follow-up of cervical cytologic abnormalities: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132:810819.
  • 42
    Stoler MH, Schiffman M, and Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance-Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study (ALTS) Group. Interobserver reproducibility of cervical cytologic and histologic interpretations: realistic estimates from the ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study. JAMA 2001; 285:15001505.
  • 43
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin. Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists. Number 61, April 2005. Human papillomavirus. Obstet Gynecol 2005; 105:905918.
  • 44
    Leyden WA, Manos MM, Geiger AM, et al. Cervical cancer in women with comprehensive health care access: attributable factors in the screening process. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97:675683.
  • 45
    Schwartz PE, Hadjimichael O, Lowell DM, et al. Rapidly progressive cervical cancer: the Connecticut experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996; 175:11051109.
  • 46
    Dworkin M, Killackey M, Johnson JC. Factors leading to delay in diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer. Prim Care Update Ob Gyns 1998; 5:158.
  • 47
    Hoyo C, Yarnall KS, Skinner CS, et al. Pain predicts non-adherence to pap smear screening among middle-aged African American women. Prev Med 2005; 41:439445.
  • 48
    Williams JJ, Santoso JT, Ling FW, Przepiorka D. Pap smear noncompliance among female obstetrics-gynecology residents. Gynecol Oncol 2003; 90:597600.
  • 49
    Yabroff KR, Lawrence WF, King JC, et al. Geographic disparities in cervical cancer mortality: what are the roles of risk factor prevalence, screening, and use of recommended treatment? J Rural Health 2005; 21:149157.
  • 50
    Schootman M, Jeffe DB, Baker EA, Walker MS. Effect of area poverty rate on cancer screening across US communities. J Epidemiol Community Health 2006; 60:202207.
  • 51
    Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 2005; 55:74108.
  • 52
    Parham GP, Hicks ML. Racial disparities affecting the reproductive health of African-American women. Med Clin North Am 2005; 89:935943, 941.
  • 53
    Patel DA, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Patel MK, et al. A population-based study of racial and ethnic differences in survival among women with invasive cervical cancer: analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. Gynecol Oncol 2005; 97:550558.
  • 54
    Singh GK, Miller BA, Hankey BF, Edwards BK. Persistent area socioeconomic disparities in U.S. incidence of cervical cancer, mortality, stage, and survival, 1975–2000. Cancer 2004; 101:10511057.
  • 55
    Wang SS, Sherman ME, Hildesheim A, et al. Cervical adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma incidence trends among white women and black women in the United States for 1976–2000. Cancer 2004; 100:10351044.
  • 56
    Hall HI, Jamison PM, Coughlin SS. Breast and cervical cancer mortality in the Mississippi Delta, 1979–1998. South Med J 2004; 97:264272.
  • 57
    Hao Y, Ward EM, Jemal A, et al. U.S. congressional district cancer death rates. Int J Health Geogr 2006; 5:28.
  • 58
    Coronado GD, Thompson B, Koepsell TD, et al. Use of Pap test among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites in a rural setting. Prev Med 2004; 38:713722.
  • 59
    Freeman HP, Chu KC. Determinants of cancer disparities: barriers to cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2005; 14:655669, v.
  • 60
    Freeman, HP, WingroveBK, eds. Excess Cervical Cancer Mortality: A Marker for Low Access to Health Care in Poor Communities. Rockville, MD: National Cancer Institute, Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities; May 2005. NIH Pub. No. 05-5282.
  • 61
    Clifford GM, Smith JS, Plummer M, et al. Human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancer worldwide: a meta-analysis. Br J Cancer 2003; 88:6373.
  • 62
    Castellsague X, Diaz M, de Sanjose S, et al. Worldwide human papillomavirus etiology of cervical adenocarcinoma and its cofactors: implications for screening and prevention. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006; 98:303315.
  • 63
    Sherman ME, Wang SS, Carreon J, Devesa SS. Mortality trends for cervical squamous and adenocarcinoma in the United States. Relation to incidence and survival. Cancer 2005; 103:12581264.
  • 64
    Bray F, Carstensen B, Moller H, et al. Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14:21912199.
  • 65
    Cuschieri KS, Cubie HA, Whitley MW, et al. Multiple high risk HPV infections are common in cervical neoplasia and young women in a cervical screening population. J Clin Pathol 2004; 57:6872.
  • 66
    Ho GY, Bierman R, Beardsley L, et al. Natural history of cervicovaginal papillomavirus infection in young women. N Engl J Med 1998; 338:423428.
  • 67
    Ho GY, Studentsov YY, Bierman R, Burk RD. Natural history of human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particle antibodies in young women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13:110116.
  • 68
    Moscicki AB, Shiboski S, Hills NK, et al. Regression of low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions in young women. Lancet 2004; 364:16781683.
  • 69
    Winer RL, Kiviat NB, Hughes JP, et al. Development and duration of human papillomavirus lesions, after initial infection. J Infect Dis 2005; 191:731738.
  • 70
    Woodman CB, Collins S, Winter H, et al. Natural history of cervical human papillomavirus infection in young women: a longitudinal cohort study. Lancet 2001; 357:18311836.
  • 71
    Nobbenhuis MA, Walboomers JM, Helmerhorst TJ, et al. Relation of human papillomavirus status to cervical lesions and consequences for cervical-cancer screening: a prospective study. Lancet 1999; 354:2025.
  • 72
    Wright TC, Jr, Schiffman M. Adding a test for human papillomavirus DNA to cervical-cancer screening. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:489490.
  • 73
    Schiffman M, Herrero R, Desalle R, et al. The carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus types reflects viral evolution. Virology 2005; 337:7684.
  • 74
    Hildesheim A, Hadjimichael O, Schwartz PE, et al. Risk factors for rapid-onset cervical cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 180:571577.
  • 75
    Duensing S, Munger K. Mechanisms of genomic instability in human cancer: insights from studies with human papillomavirus oncoproteins. Int J Cancer 2004; 109:157162.
  • 76
    Munger K, Howley PM. Human papillomavirus immortalization and transformation functions. Virus Res 2002; 89:213228.
  • 77
    Winer RL, Lee SK, Hughes JP, et al. Genital human papillomavirus infection: incidence and risk factors in a cohort of female university students. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 157:218226.
  • 78
    Rylander E, Ruusuvaara L, Almstromer MW, et al. The absence of vaginal human papillomavirus 16 DNA in women who have not experienced sexual intercourse. Obstet Gynecol 1994; 83:735737.
  • 79
    Derkay CS, Darrow DH. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2006; 115:111.
  • 80
    Pham TH, Nguyen TH, Herrero R, et al. Human papillomavirus infection among women in South and North Vietnam. Int J Cancer 2003; 104:213220.
  • 81
    Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W Jr. Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2004; 36:610.
  • 82
    Cates, W Jr. Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. American Social Health Association Panel. Sex Transm Dis 1999; 26(suppl):S2S7.
  • 83
    Koutsky L. Epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection. Am J Med 1997; 102:38.
  • 84
    Bauer HM, Ting Y, Greer CE, et al. Genital human papillomavirus infection in female university students as determined by a PCR-based method. JAMA 1991; 265:472477.
  • 85
    Kulasingam SL, Hughes JP, Kiviat NB, et al. Evaluation of human papillomavirus testing in primary screening for cervical abnormalities: comparison of sensitivity, specificity, and frequency of referral. JAMA 2002; 288:17491757.
  • 86
    Richardson H, Kelsall G, Tellier P, et al. The natural history of type-specific human papillomavirus infections in female university students. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12:485490.
  • 87
    Myers ER, McCrory DC, Nanda K, et al. Mathematical model for the natural history of human papillomavirus infection and cervical carcinogenesis. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 151:11581171.
  • 88
    Moscicki AB. Impact of HPV infection in adolescent populations. J Adolesc Health 2005; 37(suppl):S3S9.
  • 89
    Pinto LA, Edwards J, Castle PE, et al. Cellular immune responses to human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 L1 in healthy volunteers immunized with recombinant HPV-16 L1 virus-like particles. J Infect Dis 2003; 188:327238.
  • 90
    Emeny RT, Wheeler CM, Jansen KU, et al. Priming of human papillomavirus type 11-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in college-aged women with a virus-like particle vaccine. J Virol 2002; 76:78327842.
  • 91
    Kadish AS, Einstein MH. Vaccine strategies for human papillomavirus-associated cancers. Curr Opin Oncol 2005; 17:456461.
  • 92
    US Food and Drug Administration. Product Approval Information-Licensing Action: GARDASIL Questions and Answers. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/cber/products/hpvmer060806qa.htm. Accessed October 30, 2006.
  • 93
    Miller NB. Gardasil TM: Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus 6, 11, 16, 18 L1 VLP Vaccine. Applicant: Merck & Co., Inc. Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee Meeting, May 18, 2006. US Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/slides/2006-4222S-2_files/frame.htm#slide0221.htm. Accessed October 30, 2006.
  • 94
    Carter JJ, Koutsky LA, Wipf GC, et al. The natural history of human papillomavirus type 16 capsid antibodies among a cohort of university women. J Infect Dis 1996; 174:927936.
  • 95
    Kirnbauer R, Hubbert NL, Wheeler CM, et al. A virus-like particle enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detects serum antibodies in a majority of women infected with human papillomavirus type 16. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86:494499.
  • 96
    Abma JC, Martinez GM, Mosher WD, Dawson BS. Teenagers in the United States: sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, 2002. Vital Health Stat 23 2004:1–48.
  • 97
    Grunbaum JA, Kann L, Kinchen S, et al. Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2003. MMWR Surveill Summ 2004; 53:196.
  • 98
    Moscicki AB, Hills N, Shiboski S, et al. Risks for incident human papillomavirus infection and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion development in young females. JAMA 2001; 285:29953002.
  • 99
    Wheeler CM, Greer CE, Becker TM, et al. Short-term fluctuations in the detection of cervical human papillomavirus DNA. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 88:261268.
  • 100
    Brown DR, Shew ML, Qadadri B, et al. A longitudinal study of genital human papillomavirus infection in a cohort of closely followed adolescent women. J Infect Dis 2005; 191:182192.
  • 101
    Peyton CL, Gravitt PE, Hunt WC, et al. Determinants of genital human papillomavirus detection in a US population. J Infect Dis 2001; 183:15541564.
  • 102
    Santelli JS, Brener ND, Lowry R, et al. Multiple sexual partners among U.S. adolescents and young adults. Fam Plann Perspect 1998; 30:271275.
  • 103
    Mosher WD, Chandra A, Jones J. Sexual behavior and selected health measures: men and women 15–44 years of age, United States, 2002. Adv Data 2005; 362:155.
  • 104
    US Food and Drug Administration. Product Approval Information-Licensing Action: Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (Types 6, 11, 16, 18) Recombinant Vaccine. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/cber/products/hpvmer060806.htm. Accessed October 26, 2006.
  • 105
    Barnabas RV, Laukkanen P, Koskela P, et al. Epidemiology of HPV 16 and cervical cancer in Finland and the potential impact of vaccination: mathematical modelling analyses. PLoS Med 2006; 3:e138.
  • 106
    Sanders GD, Taira AV. Cost-effectiveness of a potential vaccine for human papillomavirus. Emerg Infect Dis 2003; 9:3748.
  • 107
    Garnett GP. Role of herd immunity in determining the effect of vaccines against sexually transmitted disease. J Infect Dis 2005; 191(suppl):S97S106.
  • 108
    Kyrgiou M, Koliopoulos G, Martin-Hirsch P, et al. Obstetric outcomes after conservative treatment for intraepithelial or early invasive cervical lesions: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2006; 367:489498.
  • 109
    Khan MJ, Castle PE, Lorincz AT, et al. The elevated 10-year risk of cervical precancer and cancer in women with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 or 18 and the possible utility of type-specific HPV testing in clinical practice. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97:10721079.
  • 110
    Castle PE, Solomon D, Schiffman M, Wheeler CM. Human papillomavirus type 16 infections and 2-year absolute risk of cervical precancer in women with equivocal or mild cytologic abnormalities. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97:10661071.
  • 111
    Polednak AP. Later-stage cancer in relation to medically underserved areas in Connecticut. J Health Care Poor Underserved 2000; 11:301309.
  • 112
    Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccines for Children Program (VFC) CDC National Immunization Program, 2006. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nip/vfc/refs_articles.htm. Accessed October 30, 2006.
  • 113
    Santoli JM, Rodewald LE, Maes EF, et al. Vaccines for Children program, United States, 1997. Pediatrics 1999; 104:e15.
  • 114
    Mast EE, Margolis HS, Fiore AE, et al. A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) part 1: immunization of infants, children, and adolescents. MMWR Recomm Rep 2005; 54:131.
  • 115
    Seeff LC, McKenna MT. Cervical cancer mortality among foreign-born women living in the United States, 1985 to 1996. Cancer Detect Prev 2003; 27:203208.
  • 116
    Gaul, M. Family Research Council Statement Regarding HPV Vaccines. Available at: http://www.frc.org/get.cfm?i=LH06B03. Accessed October 26, 2006.
  • 117
    Focus on the Family. HPV Vaccines: Information from Focus on the Family. Available at: http://www.family.org/cforum/fosi/abstinence/parents/a0039250.cfm. Accessed October 26, 2006.
  • 118
    Olshen E, Woods ER, Austin SB, et al. Parental acceptance of the human papillomavirus vaccine. J Adolesc Health 2005; 37:248251.
  • 119
    Davis K, Dickman ED, Ferris D, Dias JK. Human papillomavirus vaccine acceptability among parents of 10- to 15-year-old adolescents. J Low Genit Tract Dis 2004; 8:188194.
  • 120
    Dell DL, Chen H, Ahmad F, Stewart DE. Knowledge about human papillomavirus among adolescents. Obstet Gynecol 2000; 96:653656.
  • 121
    Waller J, McCaffery K, Forrest S, et al. Awareness of human papillomavirus among women attending a well woman clinic. Sex Transm Infect 2003; 79:320322.
  • 122
    Raine TR, Harper CC, Rocca CH, et al. Direct access to emergency contraception through pharmacies and effect on unintended pregnancy and STIs: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005; 293:5462.
  • 123
    Smoak ND, Scott-Sheldon LA, Johnson BT, Carey MP. Sexual risk reduction interventions do not inadvertently increase the overall frequency of sexual behavior: a meta-analysis of 174 studies with 116,735 participants. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006; 41:374384.
  • 124
    Handal GA. Adolescent immunization. Adolesc Med 2000; 11:439452.
  • 125
    From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Impact of vaccines universally recommended for children—United States, 1900–1998. JAMA 1999; 281:14821483.
  • 126
    From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ten great public health achievements—United States, 1900–1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999; 48:241243.
  • 127
    Orenstein WA, Hinman AR. The immunization system in the United States—the role of school immunization laws. Vaccine 1999; 17(suppl):S19S24.
  • 128
    From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccination coverage among adolescents 1 year before the institution of a seventh grade school entry vaccination requirement—San Diego, California, 1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2000; 49:101102,111.
  • 129
    Selden TM, Banthin JS, Cohen JW. Medicaid's problem children: eligible but not enrolled. Health Aff (Millwood) 1998; 17:192200.
  • 130
    MacKay A, Fingerhut L, Duran C. Adolescent Health Chartbook. Health, United States, 2000. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2000.
  • 131
    Mast EE, Mahoney FJ, Alter MJ, Margolis HS. Progress toward elimination of hepatitis B virus transmission in the United States. Vaccine 1998; 16(suppl):S48S51.
  • 132
    Immunization of adolescents. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the American Medical Association. MMWR Recomm Rep 1996; 45:116.
  • 133
    Middleman AB, Rosenthal SL, Rickert VI, et al. Adolescent immunizations: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. J Adolesc Health 2006; 38:321327.
  • 134
    Hoover DR, Carfioli B, Moench EA. Attitudes of adolescent/young adult women toward human papillomavirus vaccination and clinical trials. Health Care Women Int 2000; 21:375391.
  • 135
    Kahn JA, Rosenthal SL, Hamann T, Bernstein DI. Attitudes about human papillomavirus vaccine in young women. Int J STD AIDS 2003; 14:300306.
  • 136
    Zimet GD, Mays RM, Winston Y, et al. Acceptability of human papillomavirus immunization. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2000; 9:4750.
  • 137
    Mays RM, Sturm LA, Zimet GD. Parental perspectives on vaccinating children against sexually transmitted infections. Soc Sci Med 2004; 58:14051413.
  • 138
    Zimet GD, Mays RM, Sturm LA, et al. Parental attitudes about sexually transmitted infection vaccination for their adolescent children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005; 159:132137.
  • 139
    Mays RM, Zimet GD. Recommending STI vaccination to parents of adolescents: the attitudes of nurse practitioners. Sex Transm Dis 2004; 31:428432.
  • 140
    Raley JC, Followwill KA, Zimet GD, Ault KA. Gynecologists' attitudes regarding human papilloma virus vaccination: a survey of Fellows of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2004; 12:127133.
  • 141
    Kennedy AM, Brown CJ, Gust DA. Vaccine beliefs of parents who oppose compulsory vaccination. Public Health Rep 2005; 120:252258.
  • 142
    Gust DA, Campbell S, Kennedy A, et al. Parental concerns and medical-seeking behavior after immunization. Am J Prev Med 2006; 31:3235.
  • 143
    Dempsey AF, Zimet GD, Davis RL, Koutsky L. Factors that are associated with parental acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccines: a randomized intervention study of written information about HPV. Pediatrics 2006; 117:14861493.
  • 144
    Elbasha EH, Galvani AP. Vaccination against multiple HPV types. Math Biosci 2005; 197:88117.
  • 145
    Garnett GP, Waddell HC. Public health paradoxes and the epidemiological impact of an HPV vaccine. J Clin Virol 2000; 19:101111.
  • 146
    Goldie SJ, Grima D, Kohli M, et al. A comprehensive natural history model of HPV infection and cervical cancer to estimate the clinical impact of a prophylactic HPV-16/18 vaccine. Int J Cancer 2003; 106:896904.
  • 147
    Goldie SJ, Kohli M, Grima D, et al. Projected clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of a human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004; 96:604615.
  • 148
    Hughes JP, Garnett GP, Koutsky L. The theoretical population-level impact of a prophylactic human papilloma virus vaccine. Epidemiology 2002; 13:631639.
  • 149
    Kulasingam SL, Myers ER. Potential health and economic impact of adding a human papillomavirus vaccine to screening programs. JAMA 2003; 290:781789.
  • 150
    Taira AV, Neukermans CP, Sanders GD. Evaluating human papillomavirus vaccination programs. Emerg Infect Dis 2004; 10:19151923.
  • 151
    Clark LR, Jackson M, Allen-Taylor L. Adolescent knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases. Sex Transm Dis 2002; 29:436443.
  • 152
    Mays RM, Zimet GD, Winston Y, et al. Human papillomavirus, genital warts, Pap smears, and cervical cancer: knowledge and beliefs of adolescent and adult women. Health Care Women Int 2000; 21:361374.
  • 153
    Baer H, Allen S, Braun L. Knowledge of human papillomavirus infection among young adult men and women: implications for health education and research. J Community Health 2000; 25:6778.
  • 154
    Denny-Smith T, Bairan A, Page MC. A survey of female nursing students' knowledge, health beliefs, perceptions of risk, and risk behaviors regarding human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 2006; 18:6269.
  • 155
    Lambert EC. College students' knowledge of human papillomavirus and effectiveness of a brief educational intervention. J Am Board Fam Pract 2001; 14:178183.
  • 156
    Ramirez JE, Ramos DM, Clayton L, et al. Genital human papillomavirus infections: knowledge, perception of risk, and actual risk in a nonclinic population of young women. J Womens Health 1997; 6:113121.
  • 157
    Yacobi E, Tennant C, Ferrante J, et al. University students' knowledge and awareness of HPV. Prev Med 1999; 28:535541.
  • 158
    Gerhardt CA, Pong K, Kollar LM, et al. Adolescents' knowledge of human papillomavirus and cervical dysplasia. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2000; 13:1520.
  • 159
    Le T, Hicks W, Menard C, et al. Human papilloma virus testing knowledge and attitudes among women attending colposcopy clinic with ASCUS/LGSIL pap smears. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2004; 26:788792.
  • 160
    Pitts M, Clarke T. Human papillomavirus infections and risks of cervical cancer: what do women know? Health Educ Res 2002; 17:706714.
  • 161
    Waller J, McCaffery K, Nazroo J, Wardle J. Making sense of information about HPV in cervical screening: a qualitative study. Br J Cancer 2005; 92:265270.
  • 162
    Gilbert LK, Alexander L, Grosshans JF, Jolley L. Answering frequently asked questions about HPV. Sex Transm Dis 2003; 30:193194.
  • 163
    Anhang R, Goodman A, Goldie SJ. HPV communication: review of existing research and recommendations for patient education. CA Cancer J Clin 2004; 54:248259.
  • 164
    Jain N, Irwin KL, Montano D, et al. Family physicians' knowledge of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-related conditions, United States, 2004. Fam Med 2006; 38:483489.
  • 165
    Irwin K, Montano D, Kasprzyk D, et al. Cervical cancer screening, abnormal cytology management, and counseling practices inthe United States. Obstet Gynecol 2006; 108:397409.
  • 166
    Goldie SJ, Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Garnett GP. Chapter 18: Public health policy for cervical cancer prevention: The role of decision science, economic evaluation, and mathematical modeling. Vaccine 2006; 24(suppl):S155S163.
  • 167
    Sherris J, Kols A. HPV Vaccines: Promise and Challenge. Seattle, WA: PATH; 2001.
  • 168
    PATH. Cervical Cancer Vaccine: A Vaccine for Women's Health. Available at: http://www.path.org/projects/cervical_cancer_vaccine.php. Accessed November 6, 2006.
  • 169
    Schiffman M, Castle PE. The promise of global cervical-cancer prevention. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:21012104.