Web Appendix: Videos showing activity of the lugworm (Arenicola marina) in a sandwich aquarium. In videos 2-4 color-coding of oxygen concentrations is the same as in the main text and the white line indicates the sediment surface.

Video 1: Bioturbation activity of A. marina. The time lapse covers a period of 32 hours during which feeding and defecations form the characteristic sediment surface topography.

Video 2: Oxygen dynamics in 500-fold speed induced by forward and reversed pumping by Arenicola marina in high permeability sediment (K=3.3 cm min-1). The cross sectional area is about 30 by 20 cm.

Video 3: Oxygen dynamics in 500-fold speed in a low permeability sediment (K=0.1 cm min-1) associated with a focused porewater outflow through sedimentary cracks at the sediment surface, induced by hydraulic activity of Arenicola marina at depth. The cross sectional area is about 25 by 20 cm.

Video 4: Oxygen dynamics with 500-fold speed in intermediate permeability sediment (K=1.8 cm min-1) during a period of low lugworm activity, followed by two sequential periods of reversed and forward pumping. When the flow is reversed, anoxic water leaves the burrow through the tail shaft and oxic water percolates into the surficial sediment. The cross sectional area is about 30 by 20 cm.


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