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A. J. Stocker, E. M. Warrington and D. R. Siddle Observations of Doppler and delay spreads on HF signals received over polar cap and trough paths at various stages of the solar cycle Radio Science 48

Article first published online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013RS005264

Key Points

  • Doppler and delay spreads are presented for polar and midlatitude HF paths
  • The dependence of spread on sunspot number varies by hour, season, and frequency
  • The variation is classified into five basic types and explanations are proposed

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