M. A. Meyers, Y. S. Lin, E. A. Olevsky and P.-Y. Chen Battle in the Amazon: Arapaima versus Piranha Advanced Engineering Materials 14
This study investigates the mechanical properties and structure of Arapaima scales and piranha teeth. The Arapaima scale is a laminate structure composed of highly mineralized external layer and internal collagen layers. The piranha teeth are arranged in a triangular array with high cutting efficiency. The penetration tests demonstrate that the piranha teeth cannot defeat the Arapaima scales.
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