J. K. J. van Duren, X. Yang, J. Loos, C. W. T. Bulle-Lieuwma, A. B. Sieval, J. C. Hummelen and R. A. J. Janssen Relating the Morphology of Poly(p-phenylene vinylene)/Methanofullerene Blends to Solar-Cell Performance Advanced Functional Materials 14
The morphology of polymer solar cells consisting of a blend of a poly(p-phenylene vinylene) and a methanofullerene is resolved in three dimensions on a nanometer scale and related to cell performance. Phase separation seen in atomic force micrographs (see Figure) is crucial for optimum energy conversion efficiency. The results are interpreted in terms of a hierarchical structure of two interpenetrating networks of fullerenes at different length scales.
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