Sarah R. Cowan, Wei Lin Leong, Natalie Banerji, Gilles Dennler and Alan J. Heeger Identifying a Threshold Impurity Level for Organic Solar Cells: Enhanced First-Order Recombination Via Well-Defined PC84BM Traps in Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Advanced Functional Materials 21
PC84BM traps provide a definitive measure of trap-assisted recombination in polymer:fullerene solar cells. The trap-density-dependent recombination studied here can be described by the result of bimolecular and Shockley–Read–Hall recombination. Dilute impurities act as an important loss mechanism that may be eliminated via further purification processes. Schematic illustration of the addition of PC84BM in small mass fraction to the polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cell, showing the chemical structure of PC84BM and PC60BM.
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