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Ggoch Ddeul Han, William R. Collins, Trisha L. Andrew, Vladimir Bulović and Timothy M. Swager Cyclobutadiene–C60 Adducts: N-Type Materials for Organic Photovoltaic Cells with High VOC Advanced Functional Materials 23

Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203251

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Cofacial π-orbital interactions between the fullerene and the cyclobutene addend are shown to decrease the electron affinity and thereby increase the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level of C60 significantly. The increased LUMO level of fullerene can be used to generate higher open-circuit voltages and a comparable power conversion efficiency relative to the widely used P3HT/PCBM composite.

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