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Sai-Wing Tsang, Song Chen and Franky So Energy Level Alignment and Sub-Bandgap Charge Generation in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Advanced Materials 25

Article first published online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204495

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Using charge modulated electroabsorption spectroscopy (CMEAS), for the first time, the energy level alignment of a polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell is directly measured. The charge-transfer excitons generated by the sub-bandgap optical pumping are coupled with the modulating electric field and introduce subtle changes in optical absorption in the sub-bandgap region. This minimum required energy for sub-bandgap charge genreation is defined as the effective bandgap.

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