Liyu Li, Soowhan Kim, Wei Wang, M. Vijayakumar, Zimin Nie, Baowei Chen, Jianlu Zhang, Guanguang Xia, Jianzhi Hu, Gordon Graff, Jun Liu and Zhenguo Yang Large-Scale Energy Storage: A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-Scale Energy Storage (Adv. Energy Mater. 3/2011) Advanced Energy Materials 1
Though considered a promising large-scale storage device for regulating renewable energy supply during calm and cloudy weather, the vana-dium redox battery's use has been limited by its inability to work well in a wide range of temperatures and its low energy density. Adding hydro-chloric acid to the sulfuric acid electrolyte typically used in vanadium redox flow batteries increased the batteries' energy storage capacity by 70% and expanded the operational temperature range, report Liyu Li, Zhenguo Yang, and co-workers on p. 394.
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