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Chia-Jung Hsu, Hsin-Sheng Duan, Wenbing Yang, Huanping Zhou and Yang Yang Benign Solutions and Innovative Sequential Annealing Processes for High Performance Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 Photovoltaics Advanced Energy Materials 4

Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301287

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Combining fully dissolved copper and zinc/tin hydrazinium constituents in an ethanolamine and dimethylsulfoxide solution mixture results in formation of a Cu2ZnSnS4 precursor in which all solutes are intermixed on the molecular scale. Sequential annealing steps under chalcogen vapor allow for enhanced grain growth while preventing the back contact from forming an excessively thick Mo(S,Se)2 layer. The resulting devices achieve power conversion efficiencies of 7.5%.

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