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Min-Fan Chung, Ko-Jie Chen, Hsiang-Fa Liang, Zi-Xian Liao, Wei-Tso Chia, Prof. Younan Xia and Prof. Hsing-Wen Sung A Liposomal System Capable of Generating CO2 Bubbles to Induce Transient Cavitation, Lysosomal Rupturing, and Cell Necrosis Angewandte Chemie International Edition 51

Article first published online: 5 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.201205482

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Bubbling over: After endocytosis and intracellular trafficking to lysosomes, liposomes containing ammonium bicarbonate can be thermally triggered to generate CO2 bubbles (see scheme). These bubbles grow rapidly and collapse violently to induce transient cavitation, a process that can disrupt the lysosomal membrane and release lysosomal proteases, thus leading to cell necrosis.

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