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Dr. Hans H. Gorris and Prof. Otto S. Wolfbeis Photon-Upconverting Nanoparticles for Optical Encoding and Multiplexing of Cells, Biomolecules, and Microspheres Angewandte Chemie International Edition 52

Version of Record online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.201208196

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Code makers: Photon-upconverting nanoparticles show multiple emission of visible light under near-IR excitation and thus avoid autofluorescence and light scattering associated with other forms of optical encoding. The emission lines can be tuned individually to yield larger sets and more photostable optical codes than conventional fluorescent codes. A combination of two emission lines each adjusted to four intensity levels yields 15 codes (see picture, background TEM image of NaYF4 nanoparticles).

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