Mahmoud Sayah, Dr. Alan J. Lough and Prof. Michael G. Organ Sulfination by Using Pd-PEPPSI Complexes: Studies into Precatalyst Activation, Cationic and Solvent Effects and the Role of Butoxide Base Chemistry - A European Journal 19
On activation duty: The activation of PEPPSI precatalysts has been evaluated in the sulfination of aryl halides (see figure). Substitution of the two chlorides on Pd with two sulfides occurs immediately, even at low temperature, and it is this species that is reduced and enters the catalytic cycle. The butoxide base is involved in precatalyst activation and maintaining a healthy level of active catalyst to ensure high catalytic performance. Examination of the cation of the sulfide salt and solvent dielectric revealed that solubility is very important to the success of this transformation.
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