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Mark Kidd, Irvin M. Modlin, Roswitha Pfragner, Geeta N. Eick, Manish C. Champaneria, Anthony K. Chan, Robert L. Camp and Shrikant M. Mane Small bowel carcinoid (enterochromaffin cell) neoplasia exhibits transforming growth factor–β1-mediated regulatory abnormalities including up-regulation of C-Myc and MTA1 Cancer 109

Version of Record online: 27 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22725

The neoplastic enterochromaffin cell is characterized by loss of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ-1)-mediated growth inhibition and, similar to glioblastomas, utilizes the TGFβ system to induce gene responses associated with growth promotion (c-Myc and the ERK pathway), invasion (E-cadherin), and metastasis (MTA1).

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