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Emad A. Rakha, Stewart Martin, Andrew H. S. Lee, David Morgan, Paul D. P. Pharoah, Zsolt Hodi, Douglas MacMillan and Ian O. Ellis The prognostic significance of lymphovascular invasion in invasive breast carcinoma Cancer 118

Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26711

In patients with lymph node-negative breast cancer, lymphovascular invasion (LVI) can be used as a high-risk criterion to indicate a survival disadvantage equivalent to that indicated by a positive pathologic lymph node status of pN0 or pN1 and a pathologic tumor classification of pT1 or pT2. The use of immunohistochemistry to identify an endothelial-specific marker can contribute to the significance of LVI when applied to routine cases that are LVI negative/possible.

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