Uma Khumairoh, Jeroen C.J. Groot and Egbert A. Lantinga Complex agro-ecosystems for food security in a changing climate Ecology and Evolution 2
Complex agricultural systems consisting of assemblages of plant and animal species can support ecological processes of nutrient cycling and pest control, which may lead to higher yields and reduced susceptibility to extreme weather conditions. We show that enhancing the complexity of an organic rice production system by adding combinations of compost, azolla, ducks, and fish resulted in strongly increased grain yields and revenues in a season with extremely adverse weather conditions on East Java, Indonesia. These results provide more insight in the agro-ecological processes and demonstrate how complex agricultural systems can contribute to food security in a changing climate.
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