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Petri T. Niemelä, Anssi Vainikka, Jukka T. Forsman, Olli J. Loukola and Raine Kortet How does variation in the environment and individual cognition explain the existence of consistent behavioral differences? Ecology and Evolution 3

Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.451

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We use existing literature to review how environmental variation and cognitive potential explain population and individual level expression of behavioral plasticity and using that draw together a conceptual framework to clarify how these factors affect the evolution and expression of animal personalities in nature.

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