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Christian Dietzen, Peter J Edwards, Christian Wolf, Jan-Dieter Ludwigs and Robert Luttik Focal species of birds in European crops for higher tier pesticide risk assessment Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 10

Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1487

Key Points

  • Focal species of birds have been defined for most major arable and tree crops in Europe applying EFSA guidelines
  • Identified focal bird species are recommended for pesticide risk assessment and further evaluation of effects and exposure
  • In arable crops, birds are generally represented by small omnivorous (lark or bunting) and small insectivorous (wagtail) species, while herbivorous (pigeon) or granivorous (finch) exposure scenarios are less relevant
  • In tree crops, (orchards, vineyards) insectivorous ground-foraging (blackbird) and foliage-foraging insectivores (warbler or tit), omnivores (sparrow, bunting, finch) and occasionally granivorous finches were identified as focal species

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