Tilman Kühn, Rudolf Kaaks, Susen Becker, Piia-Piret Eomois, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Marina Kvaskoff, Laure Dossus, Anne Tjønneland, Anja Olsen, Kim Overvad, Jenny Chang-Claude, Annekatrin Lukanova, Brian Buijsse, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Pagona Lagiou, Christina Bamia, Giovanna Masala, Vittorio Krogh, Carlotta Sacerdote, Rosario Tumino, Amalia Mattiello, Genevieve Buckland, María-José Sánchez, Virginia Menéndez, María-Dolores Chirlaque, Aurelio Barricarte, H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Fränzel J.B. van Duijnhoven, Carla H. van Gils, Marije F. Bakker, Elisabete Weiderpass, Guri Skeie, Magritt Brustad, Anne Andersson, Malin Sund, Nick Wareham, Kay Tee Khaw, Ruth C. Travis, Julie A. Schmidt, Sabina Rinaldi, Isabelle Romieu, Valentina Gallo, Neil Murphy, Elio Riboli and Jakob Linseisen Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition: A nested case–control study International Journal of Cancer 133
Article first published online: 22 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28172
Experimental studies have indicated that vitamin D may play a role in preventing tumor formation in the breast. However, in the present investigation, the largest prospective case-control study on circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and breast cancer risk conducted to date, pre-diagnostic levels of 25(OH)D were found to be unrelated to overall breast cancer risk. While the results support those of similar prospective studies, a significant inverse association was detected between 25(OH)D levels and incident breast cancer in women taking hormone replacement therapy, suggesting that background factors may influence risk associations.
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