Erick Garcia-Garcia, Jonathan Pun, Jordan Hodgkinson, Leonidas A. Perez-Estrada, Mohamed Gamal El-Din, Daniel W. Smith, Jonathan W. Martin and Miodrag Belosevic Commercial naphthenic acids and the organic fraction of oil sands process water induce different effects on pro-inflammatory gene expression and macrophage phagocytosis in mice Journal of Applied Toxicology 32
Naphthenic acids (NAs) are believed to be the major toxic component of oil sands process water (OSPW). We evaluated whether commercial NAs are an adequate model to study OSPW toxicity in complex organisms. We compared the effects of commercial NAs preparation and the organic fraction of OSPW by measuring the pro-inflammatory gene expression and macrophage phagocytosis, and found that commercial NAs and OSPW induce different biological effects in mice.
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